2
\$\begingroup\$

I have a MultiIndex DataFrame

df = pd.DataFrame({
    ('paramA','levelA'):np.random.randint(100, size=(5)),
    ('paramA','levelB'):np.random.randint(100, size=(5)),
    ('paramB','levelA'):np.random.randint(100, size=(5)),
    ('paramB','levelB'):np.random.randint(100, size=(5))
    },
).T
df.index.set_names(['parameter','level'], inplace=True)
df.columns = np.arange('2021-10-22T00', '2021-10-22T05', dtype='datetime64[h]')
df.columns.set_names('validTime', inplace=True)
df['units']=['a','a','b','b']

which looks something like this

validTime         2021-10-22 00:00:00  ...  units
parameter level                        ...       
paramA    levelA                   32  ...      a
          levelB                   50  ...      a
paramB    levelA                   56  ...      b
          levelB                   28  ...      b

[4 rows x 6 columns]

and a method to generate....

List[Dict[str, str|List[Dict[str, str|List[Dict[str, str|int]]]]]]

I start by splitting the units and format the columns

df_values:pd.DataFrame = df.iloc[:,:-1]
df_values.rename(columns=df_values.columns.to_series().dt.strftime('%Y-%m-%d %H:%m:%SZ'))
units:pd.Series = df.iloc[:,-1]

then perform groupby(x).apply(...).values.tolist() to generate the object

df_values.groupby('parameter').apply(
    lambda parameter: {
        'parameter':  parameter.index.get_level_values('parameter')[0],
        'unit': units[parameter.index.get_level_values('parameter')[0]][0],
        'levels': parameter.groupby('level').apply(
            lambda level: {
                'level': level.index.get_level_values('level')[0],
                'values': level.apply(
                    lambda value: {
                        'validTime': str(value.name),
                        'value': value.values[0]
                    }).values.tolist()
            }).values.tolist()
    }).values.tolist()
\$\endgroup\$
2
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ That crazy nested lambda dict is eerily not bad looking, but something in me knows it's not right to do that kind of thing :) I think all the repeated .values.tolist() are a red flag, combined with the fact that just looking at it I haven't got a clue what it does! \$\endgroup\$
    – Greedo
    Feb 1 at 9:32
  • \$\begingroup\$ It's simulating an api response. which is like [{'parameter': 'paramA', 'unit':'a','levels':[{'level':'levelA','values':[{validTIme...value}]}]}] \$\endgroup\$ Feb 1 at 10:40

2 Answers 2

3
\$\begingroup\$

Don't use np.random.randint; it's deprecated.

When initialising units - and in some other places - prefer immutable tuples rather than lists.

Problem one with your data is that units is denormalised and repeats itself within the param index level. This needs to be pulled away into its own series indexed only by param.

Problem two with your data is that validTime pretends to be columns but functionally is a misrepresented index. This can be fixed with stack.

When you're manipulating sub-sub-dictionaries and the like, all hope of vectorisation is given up and so apply doesn't buy you much. Also note that your lambdas compile to one anonymous function each. Since this is already happening, you might as well replace them with one named function each that is an explicit generator with argument names and parameter and return types defined.

Your current method that relies on apply suffers from losing the grouped index value and having to recall it again with get_level_values. This can be avoided by simple iteration over the group object.

It's also worth mentioning that since you intend for this to be an API response, I presume that you need to JSON-serialise this and your current code is broken for that case since the in-built json module doesn't know how to serialise Numpy integers. In your current values indexing operation you would need an int cast; with the method I show that will not be necessary.

Suggested

import json
from typing import Iterator

import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
from numpy.random import default_rng

rng = default_rng(seed=0)


def example_data() -> pd.DataFrame:
    def rand() -> np.ndarray:
        return rng.integers(low=0, high=100, size=5)

    df = pd.DataFrame({
        ('paramA', 'levelA'): rand(),
        ('paramA', 'levelB'): rand(),
        ('paramB', 'levelA'): rand(),
        ('paramB', 'levelB'): rand()
    }).T
    df.index.set_names(('parameter', 'level'), inplace=True)
    df.columns = np.arange('2021-10-22T00', '2021-10-22T05', dtype='datetime64[h]')
    df.columns.set_names('validTime', inplace=True)
    df['units'] = ('a', 'a', 'b', 'b')
    return df


def process_op(df: pd.DataFrame) -> list:
    df_values: pd.DataFrame = df.iloc[:, :-1]
    df_values.rename(columns=df_values.columns.to_series().dt.strftime('%Y-%m-%d %H:%m:%SZ'))
    units: pd.Series = df.iloc[:, -1]

    return df_values.groupby('parameter').apply(
        lambda parameter: {
            'parameter':  parameter.index.get_level_values('parameter')[0],
            'unit': units[parameter.index.get_level_values('parameter')[0]][0],
            'levels': parameter.groupby('level').apply(
                lambda level: {
                    'level': level.index.get_level_values('level')[0],
                    'values': level.apply(
                        lambda value: {
                            'validTime': str(value.name),
                            'value': int(value.values[0]),
                        }
                    ).values.tolist()
                }
            ).values.tolist(),
        }
    ).values.tolist()


def process_new(df: pd.DataFrame) -> tuple:
    def iter_param() -> Iterator[dict]:
        for param_value, param_group in df.groupby(level=0):
            yield {
                'parameter': param_value,
                'unit': units[param_value],
                'levels': tuple(iter_level(param_group)),
            }

    def iter_level(param_group: pd.Series) -> Iterator[dict]:
        for level_value, level_group in param_group.groupby(level=1):
            yield {
                'level': level_value,
                'values': tuple(iter_time(level_group)),
            }

    def iter_time(level_group: pd.Series) -> Iterator[dict]:
        for (param, level, time), value in level_group.iteritems():
            yield {
                'validTime': str(time),
                'value': value,
            }

    # Group by the "param" index level, ignore the "level" index level,
    # and take the first unit value of each group
    units = df.groupby(level=0).units.first()

    # validTime is functionally an index but misrepresented as columns; fix that
    df = df.drop(columns=['units']).stack()

    return tuple(iter_param())


def test() -> None:
    df = example_data()
    result = process_new(df)
    print(json.dumps(result, indent=4))


if __name__ == '__main__':
    test()

Output

[
    {
        "parameter": "paramA",
        "unit": "a",
        "levels": [
            {
                "level": "levelA",
                "values": [
                    {
                        "validTime": "2021-10-22 00:00:00",
                        "value": 85
                    },
                    {
                        "validTime": "2021-10-22 01:00:00",
                        "value": 63
                    },
                    {
                        "validTime": "2021-10-22 02:00:00",
                        "value": 51
                    },
                    {
                        "validTime": "2021-10-22 03:00:00",
                        "value": 26
                    },
                    {
                        "validTime": "2021-10-22 04:00:00",
                        "value": 30
                    }
                ]
            },
            {
                "level": "levelB",
                "values": [
                    {
                        "validTime": "2021-10-22 00:00:00",
                        "value": 4
                    },
                    {
                        "validTime": "2021-10-22 01:00:00",
                        "value": 7
                    },
                    {
                        "validTime": "2021-10-22 02:00:00",
                        "value": 1
                    },
                    {
                        "validTime": "2021-10-22 03:00:00",
                        "value": 17
                    },
                    {
                        "validTime": "2021-10-22 04:00:00",
                        "value": 81
                    }
                ]
            }
        ]
    },
    {
        "parameter": "paramB",
        "unit": "b",
        "levels": [
            {
                "level": "levelA",
                "values": [
                    {
                        "validTime": "2021-10-22 00:00:00",
                        "value": 64
                    },
                    {
                        "validTime": "2021-10-22 01:00:00",
                        "value": 91
                    },
                    {
                        "validTime": "2021-10-22 02:00:00",
                        "value": 50
                    },
                    {
                        "validTime": "2021-10-22 03:00:00",
                        "value": 60
                    },
                    {
                        "validTime": "2021-10-22 04:00:00",
                        "value": 97
                    }
                ]
            },
            {
                "level": "levelB",
                "values": [
                    {
                        "validTime": "2021-10-22 00:00:00",
                        "value": 72
                    },
                    {
                        "validTime": "2021-10-22 01:00:00",
                        "value": 63
                    },
                    {
                        "validTime": "2021-10-22 02:00:00",
                        "value": 54
                    },
                    {
                        "validTime": "2021-10-22 03:00:00",
                        "value": 55
                    },
                    {
                        "validTime": "2021-10-22 04:00:00",
                        "value": 93
                    }
                ]
            }
        ]
    }
]
\$\endgroup\$
4
\$\begingroup\$

As already pointed out in the comments, these nested lambdas give a hard time to the reader to know what is going on and when. Consider splitting them in tiny helper functions.

You also extract the units columns so it doesn't bother you further down your applys, consider reshaping and reindexing your data so you can groupby(['parameters', 'units']) juuuuust in case there is a mismatch somewhere.

Your parameter.groupby('level'), combined with your [0] indexing is just a fancy apply(…, axis=1) as your consider each level unique in their respective parameter.

You also don't need to use values.tolist() each time, as the Series returned by apply allow you to call to_list() directly for the same effect.

Proposed improvements:

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np


def build_parameter_response(parameter):
  param, _, unit = parameter.index[0]
  levels = parameter.apply(build_level_response, axis=1)
  return {'parameter': param, 'unit': unit, 'levels': levels.to_list()}


def build_level_response(level):
  _, name, _ = level.name
  values = level.reset_index().apply(build_time_response, axis=1)
  return {'level': name, 'values': values.to_list()}


def build_time_response(times):
  time, value = times
  return {'validTime': str(time), 'value': value}


def build_response(dataframe):
  return (dataframe
    .set_index('units', append=True)
    .groupby(['parameter', 'units'])
    .apply(build_parameter_response)
    .to_list())


if __name__ == '__main__':
    df = pd.DataFrame({
        ('paramA','levelA'):np.random.randint(100, size=(5)),
        ('paramA','levelB'):np.random.randint(100, size=(5)),
        ('paramB','levelA'):np.random.randint(100, size=(5)),
        ('paramB','levelB'):np.random.randint(100, size=(5))
        },
    ).T
    df.index.set_names(['parameter','level'], inplace=True)
    df.columns = np.arange('2021-10-22T00', '2021-10-22T05', dtype='datetime64[h]')
    df.columns.set_names('validTime', inplace=True)
    df['units']=['a','a','b','b']
    from pprint import pprint as print
    print(build_response(df))

You can also leverage the to_dict() methods of Series to confuse a bit less and use a list-comprehension to build the final form of your datastructure:

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np


def build_parameter_response(parameter):
  param, _, unit = parameter.index[0]
  levels = parameter.apply(build_level_response, axis=1)
  return {'parameter': param, 'unit': unit, 'levels': levels.to_list()}


def build_level_response(level):
  _, _, name = level.name
  values = [
      {'validTime': str(time), 'value': value}
      for time, value in level.to_dict().items()
  ]
  return {'level': name, 'values': values}


def build_response(dataframe):
  return (dataframe
    .set_index('units', append=True)
    .groupby(['parameter', 'units'])
    .apply(build_parameter_response)
    .to_list())


if __name__ == '__main__':
    df = pd.DataFrame({
        ('paramA','levelA'):np.random.randint(100, size=(5)),
        ('paramA','levelB'):np.random.randint(100, size=(5)),
        ('paramB','levelA'):np.random.randint(100, size=(5)),
        ('paramB','levelB'):np.random.randint(100, size=(5))
        },
    ).T
    df.index.set_names(['parameter','level'], inplace=True)
    df.columns = np.arange('2021-10-22T00', '2021-10-22T05', dtype='datetime64[h]')
    df.columns.set_names('validTime', inplace=True)
    df['units']=['a','a','b','b']
    from pprint import pprint as print
    print(build_response(df))
\$\endgroup\$
2
  • \$\begingroup\$ pprint is not strictly appropriate here, as OP indicates that they're returning this as an API response - so a json call that uses explicit indentation will be more representative. \$\endgroup\$
    – Reinderien
    Feb 1 at 17:16
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Reinderien Yes and no, neither approaches will trully reflect the calling code from the OP. The if __name__ == ’__main__’ part is mostly for testing purposes and to ensure that the code under review and the proposed improvements both produces the same results. But to be fair, this is mostly artifacts from my own tests ;) \$\endgroup\$ Feb 1 at 19:19

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