# Program to evaluate powers of complex numbers

I'm trying to develop a simple program to evaluate integral powers of a complex number $z$ , that is, $z^n$, where $z$ is in the algebrical form $a+i b$ and $n \in \mathbb{Z} ^{*} _{+}$.

How I was trying to proceed:

First, I defined a product function, and next I intended to define a exponentiation function inside of which I iterated the product function (the code can bee seen below). Is it correct? Is there a more efficient alternative for doing that?

    include <stdio.h>
include <math.h>

struct complex {
float real,imag;
};

struct complex product (struct complex x, struct complex y){
/* using the distributive property, (a+ib)(c+id) = (ac-bd)+i(ad+bc)*/
struct complex z;
z.real = (x.real * y.real)- (x.imag * y.imag);
z.imag = (x.real * y.imag) + (x.imag * y.real);
return z;
}

struct complex exponentiation (struct complex z, int n){
int i;
struct complex w;
w = z;
for (i=1, i<n, i++)
w = product (w,z);
return w;
}


C has a built-in complex type and a cpow() function since C99. You seem to be .

Only in rare circumstances should you use float. In most cases, you should use double instead.

Exponentiation of complex numbers is better done using the polar representation:

$$z = r e^{i\theta}$$

where

\begin{align} z &= a + i b \\ r &= \sqrt{a^2 + b^2} \\ \theta &= \arctan{\frac{b}{a}} \end{align}

then

$$z^n = (r e^{i\theta})^n = r\,^n e^{i\ n \theta}$$

For non-trivial values of $n$, you would be better off converting to a polar representation, performing the exponentiation, and converting back to the Cartesian representation.

• Your algorithm is linear with respect to the exponent. It could (and should) be done in a logarithmic time.

• complex exponentiation (struct complex z, int n) as coded returns wrong answer for non-positive n.

• To be fair, it is declared in the question that n ∈ ℤ∗+. Perhaps the problem is that it doesn't validate that n > 0. Mar 3 '15 at 8:36