8
\$\begingroup\$

This started as a hacked-together tool to remove annoyances I was facing with experimenting with code on live remote servers, then getting that code into my development environment after experimenting. I thought others might be able to benefit from the tool, so I cleaned it up and released it as open source on GitHub.

The code in its current state appears below in its ~250 SLOC entirety. I'd appreciate any and all comments--correctness, style, best practices, logging, error handling, etc.

#!/usr/bin/env python

"""
pytograph - Reflect local filesystem changes on a remote system in real time, automatically.

<https://github.com/joshdick/pytograph>

Requires Python 2.7, and the third-party Python packages config, pysftp, and watchdog.
"""

__author__ = 'Josh Dick <joshdick.net>'
__email__ = 'josh@joshdick.net'
__copyright__ = '(c) 2011-2012, Josh Dick'
__license__ = 'Simplified BSD'

from config import Config
from watchdog.observers import Observer
from watchdog.events import *
import argparse, getpass, logging, paramiko, posixpath, pysftp, sys, time

logFormat='%(levelname)s: %(message)s'
logging.basicConfig(format=logFormat)
logger = logging.getLogger('pytograph')
logger.setLevel(logging.INFO)

class PytoWatchdogHandler(PatternMatchingEventHandler):

  """
  Watchdog event handler.
  Triggers appropriate actions on a remote server via a RemoteControl when
  specific Watchdog events are fired due to local filesystem changes.
  """

  def __init__(self, remote_control = None, **kw):
    super(PytoWatchdogHandler, self).__init__(**kw)

    if (remote_control == None):
      raise Exception('remote_control is a required parameter')
    elif not isinstance(remote_control, RemoteControl):
      raise Exception('remote_control must be an instance of RemoteControl')
    self._remote_control = remote_control

  def on_created(self, event):
    if isinstance(event, DirCreatedEvent):
      # Ignoring this event for now since directories will automatically
      # be created on the remote server by transfer_file()
      logger.debug('Ignoring DirCreatedEvent')
    else:
      self._remote_control.transfer_file(event.src_path)

  def on_deleted(self, event):
    self._remote_control.delete_resource(event.src_path)

  def on_modified(self, event):
    if isinstance(event, DirModifiedEvent):
      logger.debug('Ignoring DirModifiedEvent')
    else:
      self._remote_control.transfer_file(event.src_path)

  def on_moved(self, event):
    self._remote_control.move_resource(event.src_path, event.dest_path)


class RemoteControl:

  """
  Performs filesystem manipulations on a remote server,
  using data from the local machine's filesystem as necessary.
  """

  def __init__(self, sftp_connection = None, local_base = None, remote_base = None):
    if (sftp_connection == None):
      raise Exception('sftp_connection is a required parameter')
    elif not isinstance(sftp_connection, SFTPConnection):
      raise Exception('sftp_connection must be an instance of SFTPConnection')
    self._connection = sftp_connection.connection
    self._ssh_prefix = sftp_connection.ssh_prefix
    self._local_base = local_base
    self._remote_base = remote_base

  # Given a full canonical path on the local filesystem, returns an equivalent full
  # canonical path on the remote filesystem.
  def get_remote_path(self, local_path):
    # Strip the local base path from the local full canonical path to get the relative path
    remote_relative = local_path[len(self._local_base):]
    return self._remote_base + remote_relative

  def transfer_file(self, src_path):
    dest_path = self.get_remote_path(src_path)
    logger.info('Copying\n\t%s\nto\n\t%s:%s' % (src_path, self._ssh_prefix, dest_path))
    try:
      # Make sure the intermediate destination path to this file actually exists on the remote machine
      self._connection.execute('mkdir -p "' + os.path.split(dest_path)[0] + '"')
      self._connection.put(src_path, dest_path)
    except Exception as e:
      logger.error('Caught exception while copying:')
      logger.exception(e)

  def delete_resource(self, src_path):
    dest_path = self.get_remote_path(src_path)
    logger.info('Deleting %s:%s' % (self._ssh_prefix, dest_path))
    try:
      self._connection.execute('rm -rf "' + dest_path + '"')
    except Exception as e:
      logger.error('Caught exception while deleting:')
      logger.exception(e)

  def move_resource(self, src_path, dest_path):
    logger.info('Moving\n\t%s:%s\nto\n\t%s:%s' %
      (self._ssh_prefix, self.get_remote_path(src_path), self._ssh_prefix, self.get_remote_path(dest_path)))
    try:
      # Make sure the intermediate destination path to this file actually exists on the remote machine
      self._connection.execute('mkdir -p "' + os.path.split(dest_path)[0] + '"')
      self._connection.execute('mv "' + src_path + '" "' + dest_path + '"')
    except Exception as e:
      logger.error('Caught exception while moving:')
      logger.exception(e)


class SFTPConnection:

  """
  Maintains a persistent SSH connection to a remote server via pysftp.
  """

  def __init__(self, host = None, username = None, password = None):

    self._ssh_prefix = None
    self._connection = None

    if (username == ''):
      username = getpass.getuser()
      logger.debug('No username configured; assuming username %s' % username)
    else:
      logger.debug('Using configured username %s' % username)

    self._ssh_prefix = '%s@%s' % (username, cfg.remote_host)

    if (password == ''):
      try:
        logger.debug('No password specified, attempting to use key authentication')
        self._connection = pysftp.Connection(host, username = username)
      except Exception:
        logger.debug('Key authentication failed; prompting for password')
        password = getpass.getpass('Password for %s: ' % self._ssh_prefix)
        try:
          self._connection = pysftp.Connection(host, username = username, password = password)
        except Exception as e:
          logger.error('Could not successfully connect to %s\nCause: %s' % (self._ssh_prefix, e))
          sys.exit(1)

    else:
      logger.debug('Using configured password')
      try:
        self._connection = pysftp.Connection(host, username = username, password = password)
      except Exception as e:
        logger.error('Could not successfully connect to %s\nCause: %s' % (self._ssh_prefix, e))
        sys.exit(1)

    logger.debug('Successfully connected to %s' % self._ssh_prefix)

  @property
  def ssh_prefix(self):
    """
    (Read-only)
    String containing the username and host information for the remote server.
    """
    return self._ssh_prefix

  @property
  def connection(self):
    """
    (Read-only)
    A pysftp Connection object representing the active connection to the remote server.
    """
    return self._connection


if __name__ == "__main__":

  # Cannot use argparse.FileType with a default value since the help message will not display if pytograph.cfg
  # doesn't appear in the default location. Could subclass argparse.FileType but the following seems more intuitive.
  # See http://stackoverflow.com/questions/8236954/specifying-default-filenames-with-argparse-but-not-opening-them-on-help
  parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(description='Reflect local filesystem changes on a remote system in real time, automatically.')
  parser.add_argument('-c', '--config-file', default='pytograph.cfg', help='location of a pytograph configuration file')
  args = parser.parse_args()

  try:
    config_file = file(args.config_file)
  except Exception as e:
    logger.error('Couldn\'t read pytograph configuration file!\n\
Either place a pytograph.cfg file in the same folder as pytograph.py, or specify an alternate location.\n\
Run \'%s -h\' for usage information.\nCause: %s' % (os.path.basename(__file__), e))
    sys.exit(1)

  try:
    cfg = Config(config_file)
  except Exception as e:
    logger.error('Pytograph configuration file is invalid!\nCause: %s' % e)
    sys.exit(1)

  # Read configuration
  local_root_path = os.path.abspath(os.path.expanduser(cfg.local_root_path))
  if not os.path.isdir(local_root_path):
    logger.error('Invalid local_root_path configured: %s is not a valid path on the local machine' % cfg.local_root_path)
    sys.exit(1)
  else:
    logger.debug('Using local root path: ' + local_root_path)

  # Create persistent SSH connection to remote server
  sftp_connection = SFTPConnection(cfg.remote_host, cfg.remote_username, cfg.remote_password)

  logger.debug('Initializating path mappings...')

  # If this is still true when the loop below completes, no valid mappings are configured.
  no_valid_mappings = True

  observer = Observer()

  for mapping in cfg.path_mappings:

    # Create an absolute local path from the local root path and this mapping's local relative path
    local_base = os.path.join(local_root_path, mapping.local)
    if not os.path.isdir(local_base):
      logger.warn('Invalid path mapping configured: %s is not a valid path on the local machine' % local_base)
      continue

    # If we got this far, we have at least one valid mapping
    no_valid_mappings = False

    # Create an absolute remote path from the remote root path and this mapping's remote relative path
    # Use explicit posixpath.join since the remote server will always use UNIX-style paths for SFTP
    # TODO: Validate this, expand tilde notation, etc.
    remote_base = posixpath.join(cfg.remote_root_path, mapping.remote)

    logger.info('Path mapping initializing:\nChanges at local path\n\t%s\nwill be reflected at remote path\n\t%s:%s'
      % (local_base, sftp_connection.ssh_prefix, remote_base))

    # Create necessary objects for this particular mapping and schedule this mapping on the Watchdog observer as appropriate
    remote_control = RemoteControl(sftp_connection = sftp_connection, local_base = local_base, remote_base = remote_base)
    event_handler = PytoWatchdogHandler(ignore_patterns = cfg.ignore_patterns, remote_control = remote_control)
    observer.schedule(event_handler, path=local_base, recursive=True)

  if no_valid_mappings:
    logger.error('No valid path mappings were configured, so there\'s nothing to do. Please check your pytograph configuration file.')
    sys.exit('Terminating.')

  # We have at least one valid mapping, so start the Watchdog observer - filesystem monitoring actually begins here
  observer.start()

  try:
    while True:
      time.sleep(1)
  except KeyboardInterrupt:
    observer.stop()
  observer.join()
\$\endgroup\$
8
\$\begingroup\$
#!/usr/bin/env python

"""
pytograph - Reflect local filesystem changes on a remote system in real time, automatically.

<https://github.com/joshdick/pytograph>

Requires Python 2.7, and the third-party Python packages config, pysftp, and watchdog.
"""

__author__ = 'Josh Dick <joshdick.net>'
__email__ = 'josh@joshdick.net'
__copyright__ = '(c) 2011-2012, Josh Dick'
__license__ = 'Simplified BSD'

from config import Config
from watchdog.observers import Observer
from watchdog.events import *
import argparse, getpass, logging, paramiko, posixpath, pysftp, sys, time

logFormat='%(levelname)s: %(message)s'
logging.basicConfig(format=logFormat)
logger = logging.getLogger('pytograph')
logger.setLevel(logging.INFO)

class PytoWatchdogHandler(PatternMatchingEventHandler):

  """
  Watchdog event handler.
  Triggers appropriate actions on a remote server via a RemoteControl when
  specific Watchdog events are fired due to local filesystem changes.
  """

  def __init__(self, remote_control = None, **kw):
    super(PytoWatchdogHandler, self).__init__(**kw)

    if (remote_control == None):

Check for None using is None rather then == None. You don't need those parens.

      raise Exception('remote_control is a required parameter')

Rather then checking for None, just make remote_control not have a default value.

    elif not isinstance(remote_control, RemoteControl):
      raise Exception('remote_control must be an instance of RemoteControl')

Checking the types of arguments is frowned upon in python. You shouldn't do this check, just assume the user did the correct thing. Also, if you must raise an error, use TypeError.

    self._remote_control = remote_control

  def on_created(self, event):
    if isinstance(event, DirCreatedEvent):
      # Ignoring this event for now since directories will automatically
      # be created on the remote server by transfer_file()
      logger.debug('Ignoring DirCreatedEvent')

I might include detail about the directory in the log file

    else:
      self._remote_control.transfer_file(event.src_path)

  def on_deleted(self, event):
    self._remote_control.delete_resource(event.src_path)

Why resource? You seem to switch randomnly between resource and file.

  def on_modified(self, event):
    if isinstance(event, DirModifiedEvent):
      logger.debug('Ignoring DirModifiedEvent')
    else:
      self._remote_control.transfer_file(event.src_path)

  def on_moved(self, event):
    self._remote_control.move_resource(event.src_path, event.dest_path)


class RemoteControl:

  """
  Performs filesystem manipulations on a remote server,
  using data from the local machine's filesystem as necessary.
  """

  def __init__(self, sftp_connection = None, local_base = None, remote_base = None):
    if (sftp_connection == None):
      raise Exception('sftp_connection is a required parameter')
    elif not isinstance(sftp_connection, SFTPConnection):
      raise Exception('sftp_connection must be an instance of SFTPConnection')

Again, don't check types, and if its a required parameter don't provide a default value

    self._connection = sftp_connection.connection
    self._ssh_prefix = sftp_connection.ssh_prefix
    self._local_base = local_base
    self._remote_base = remote_base

  # Given a full canonical path on the local filesystem, returns an equivalent full
  # canonical path on the remote filesystem.
  def get_remote_path(self, local_path):
    # Strip the local base path from the local full canonical path to get the relative path
    remote_relative = local_path[len(self._local_base):]
    return self._remote_base + remote_relative

Python has a number of functions like os.path.relpath and os.path.join which would probably be a better choice then string manipulation. They'll handle the funky corner cases.

  def transfer_file(self, src_path):
    dest_path = self.get_remote_path(src_path)
    logger.info('Copying\n\t%s\nto\n\t%s:%s' % (src_path, self._ssh_prefix, dest_path))
    try:
      # Make sure the intermediate destination path to this file actually exists on the remote machine
      self._connection.execute('mkdir -p "' + os.path.split(dest_path)[0] + '"')
      self._connection.put(src_path, dest_path)
    except Exception as e:
      logger.error('Caught exception while copying:')
      logger.exception(e)

Here you catch any exception. But that includes exceptions caused by mispelling function names. That'll make it harder to find bugs. I'd recommend narrowing the scope to catch just whatever errors you really expect.

  def delete_resource(self, src_path):
    dest_path = self.get_remote_path(src_path)
    logger.info('Deleting %s:%s' % (self._ssh_prefix, dest_path))
    try:
      self._connection.execute('rm -rf "' + dest_path + '"')
    except Exception as e:
      logger.error('Caught exception while deleting:')
      logger.exception(e)

These functions look very similar. This suggests that you should refactor them to combine the common elements.

  def move_resource(self, src_path, dest_path):
    logger.info('Moving\n\t%s:%s\nto\n\t%s:%s' %
      (self._ssh_prefix, self.get_remote_path(src_path), self._ssh_prefix, self.get_remote_path(dest_path)))
    try:
      # Make sure the intermediate destination path to this file actually exists on the remote machine
      self._connection.execute('mkdir -p "' + os.path.split(dest_path)[0] + '"')
      self._connection.execute('mv "' + src_path + '" "' + dest_path + '"')
    except Exception as e:
      logger.error('Caught exception while moving:')
      logger.exception(e)


class SFTPConnection:

  """
  Maintains a persistent SSH connection to a remote server via pysftp.
  """

Extra space between class and docstring.

  def __init__(self, host = None, username = None, password = None):

    self._ssh_prefix = None
    self._connection = None

    if (username == ''):

Parens not needed

      username = getpass.getuser()
      logger.debug('No username configured; assuming username %s' % username)
    else:
      logger.debug('Using configured username %s' % username)

    self._ssh_prefix = '%s@%s' % (username, cfg.remote_host)

    if (password == ''):
      try:
        logger.debug('No password specified, attempting to use key authentication')
        self._connection = pysftp.Connection(host, username = username)
      except Exception:
        logger.debug('Key authentication failed; prompting for password')
        password = getpass.getpass('Password for %s: ' % self._ssh_prefix)
        try:
          self._connection = pysftp.Connection(host, username = username, password = password)
        except Exception as e:
          logger.error('Could not successfully connect to %s\nCause: %s' % (self._ssh_prefix, e))
          sys.exit(1)

Again, I'd narrow the exceptions being caught. I'd also shut down the program by throwing my own exception which I'd then print just before exiting.

    else:
      logger.debug('Using configured password')
      try:
        self._connection = pysftp.Connection(host, username = username, password = password)
      except Exception as e:
        logger.error('Could not successfully connect to %s\nCause: %s' % (self._ssh_prefix, e))
        sys.exit(1)

These two blocks are the same except for the way in which the password was fetched. You should rearrange the code so that the common bits aren't repeated.

    logger.debug('Successfully connected to %s' % self._ssh_prefix)

  @property
  def ssh_prefix(self):
    """
    (Read-only)
    String containing the username and host information for the remote server.
    """
    return self._ssh_prefix

  @property
  def connection(self):
    """
    (Read-only)
    A pysftp Connection object representing the active connection to the remote server.
    """
    return self._connection

Where's the execute and put function you were calling before?

if __name__ == "__main__":

I'd put the following in main function and call it from here.

  # Cannot use argparse.FileType with a default value since the help message will not display if pytograph.cfg
  # doesn't appear in the default location. Could subclass argparse.FileType but the following seems more intuitive.
  # See http://stackoverflow.com/questions/8236954/specifying-default-filenames-with-argparse-but-not-opening-them-on-help
  parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(description='Reflect local filesystem changes on a remote system in real time, automatically.')
  parser.add_argument('-c', '--config-file', default='pytograph.cfg', help='location of a pytograph configuration file')
  args = parser.parse_args()

  try:
    config_file = file(args.config_file)
  except Exception as e:
    logger.error('Couldn\'t read pytograph configuration file!\n\
Either place a pytograph.cfg file in the same folder as pytograph.py, or specify an alternate location.\n\
Run \'%s -h\' for usage information.\nCause: %s' % (os.path.basename(__file__), e))
    sys.exit(1)

When handling an exception, you should try to get as much information about the error for user display.

  try:
    cfg = Config(config_file)
  except Exception as e:
    logger.error('Pytograph configuration file is invalid!\nCause: %s' % e)
    sys.exit(1)

  # Read configuration
  local_root_path = os.path.abspath(os.path.expanduser(cfg.local_root_path))
  if not os.path.isdir(local_root_path):
    logger.error('Invalid local_root_path configured: %s is not a valid path on the local machine' % cfg.local_root_path)
    sys.exit(1)
  else:
    logger.debug('Using local root path: ' + local_root_path)

  # Create persistent SSH connection to remote server
  sftp_connection = SFTPConnection(cfg.remote_host, cfg.remote_username, cfg.remote_password)

  logger.debug('Initializating path mappings...')

  # If this is still true when the loop below completes, no valid mappings are configured.
  no_valid_mappings = True

  observer = Observer()

  for mapping in cfg.path_mappings:

    # Create an absolute local path from the local root path and this mapping's local relative path
    local_base = os.path.join(local_root_path, mapping.local)
    if not os.path.isdir(local_base):
      logger.warn('Invalid path mapping configured: %s is not a valid path on the local machine' % local_base)
      continue

I generally avoid continue in favor of else. I think its easier to read.

    # If we got this far, we have at least one valid mapping
    no_valid_mappings = False

    # Create an absolute remote path from the remote root path and this mapping's remote relative path
    # Use explicit posixpath.join since the remote server will always use UNIX-style paths for SFTP
    # TODO: Validate this, expand tilde notation, etc.
    remote_base = posixpath.join(cfg.remote_root_path, mapping.remote)

    logger.info('Path mapping initializing:\nChanges at local path\n\t%s\nwill be reflected at remote path\n\t%s:%s'
      % (local_base, sftp_connection.ssh_prefix, remote_base))

    # Create necessary objects for this particular mapping and schedule this mapping on the Watchdog observer as appropriate
    remote_control = RemoteControl(sftp_connection = sftp_connection, local_base = local_base, remote_base = remote_base)
    event_handler = PytoWatchdogHandler(ignore_patterns = cfg.ignore_patterns, remote_control = remote_control)

Why always keyboard rather then positional arguments?

    observer.schedule(event_handler, path=local_base, recursive=True)

I'd divide this loop into two parts. The first would filter the list of mappings to only include those we are actually interested in. The second would actually process them. Then you wouldn't need the flag variable: no_valid_mappings. I think it would be a bit simpler.

  if no_valid_mappings:
    logger.error('No valid path mappings were configured, so there\'s nothing to do. Please check your pytograph configuration file.')
    sys.exit('Terminating.')

  # We have at least one valid mapping, so start the Watchdog observer - filesystem monitoring actually begins here
  observer.start()

  try:
    while True:
      time.sleep(1)
  except KeyboardInterrupt:
    observer.stop()
  observer.join()

What if an exception besides KeyboardInterrupt is thrown. Should you call observer.stop() then? Perhaps the .stop and .join should be in a finally clause.

\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ Thanks for your comments, addressing them now! The naming discrepancy between transfer_file() and delete_resource()/move_resource() was actually on purpose; it's because transfer_file() is only used with files, while the others can work with both files and directories. I may change these names to be more clear. Thanks again! \$\endgroup\$ – segfault Dec 30 '11 at 20:04

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