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I'm implementing a password hashing method for a website. The code below is part of the User class.

Any pointers on what I could do better?

private string GenerateSalt(int SaltLength) {
    using (var rng = new RNGCryptoServiceProvider()) {
        var salt_bytes = new byte[SaltLength];
        rng.GetNonZeroBytes(salt_bytes);
        return Convert.ToBase64String(salt_bytes);
    }
}

private string GeneratePasswordHash(string Password) {
    //create an hmac hash of the password using the pepper value as the key
    using (var hmacsha = new HMACSHA512(ConvertStringToBytes(ConfigurationManager.AppSettings["PasswordHashPepper"]))) {
        byte[] initial_hash = hmacsha.ComputeHash(ConvertStringToBytes(Password));

        //generate a key value using pbkdf2 that will serve as the password hash
        using (var pbkdf2 = new Rfc2898DeriveBytes(initial_hash, ConvertStringToBytes(this.Salt), int.Parse(ConfigurationManager.AppSettings["PasswordHashWorkFactor"]))) {
            return ConvertBytesToString(pbkdf2.GetBytes(128));
        }
    }
}

private byte[] ConvertStringToBytes(string conversionString) {
    byte[] bytes = new byte[conversionString.Length * sizeof(char)];
    System.Buffer.BlockCopy(conversionString.ToCharArray(), 0, bytes, 0, bytes.Length);
    return bytes;
}

private string ConvertBytesToString(byte[] conversionBytes) {
    char[] chars = new char[conversionBytes.Length / sizeof(char)];
    System.Buffer.BlockCopy(conversionBytes, 0, chars, 0, conversionBytes.Length);
    return new string(chars);
}

public void SetNewPassword(string NewPassword) {
    this.Salt = GenerateSalt(64);
    this.PasswordHash = GeneratePasswordHash(NewPassword);
}

public bool ValidatePassword(string AttemptedPassword) {
    return (GeneratePasswordHash(AttemptedPassword) == this.PasswordHash);
}
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You can use the Encoding class to convert between strings and byte arrays, for example Encoding.UTF8.GetString and Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes. That gives data without the extra padding between each character code, so it's less predictable.

64 bytes of crypto strength data seems overkill for a salt. The salt isn't kept secret so it doesn't have to be that unpredictable. It's only there to create a padding that is practically unique for each user, to prevent use of dictionary attacks and rainbow tables, so it doesn't have to be so very massive.

According to the answers to the question How big salt should be?, 8 bytes is enough for any reasonably large system accoring to the standard, and 16 bytes give plenty of margin for any system imaginable.

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I recommend creating a static class named something like Hash, Crypto or Password depending on your project/context and making these methods public static, instead of making them private methods for the user class.

WARNING!

Unless your password encryption management code is sophisticated enough to manage password scheme versions and handle multi-version-migration complications PasswordHashWorkFactor should not be editable (i.e. by editing the relevant key in the config file). In that case, editing it would cause migration efforts or MORE IMPORTANTLY the attacker with R/W access to the config file can crash the system easily by adding an unnoticeable digit to PasswordHashWorkFactor (add a 0 to 100000). It would take significant time of the admin/dev to figure out the problem in a sophisticated config file while the users cannot log in. You may have it hardcoded as a const at the static class and change it in every major release at the code level. Again this is a matter of convenience vs security trade-off.

Here is my feedback in more detail as an implementation. You may want to check it out.

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Generally, if you can, use libraries for cryptographic problems.

So, you want to implement some sort of cryptography in your software or hardware project. Great. If you fuck this up people aren't going to be just mad like they might be with other bugs. They might be in prison or they might have been assassinated.

Sean Cassidy http://blog.seancassidy.me/so-you-want-to-crypto.html

Other than that, you are hashing passwords with user-specific salts, which seems good. Only question left is whether your hashing algorithms are good enough.

As an aside: I would reconsider putting the crypto code in the user class. It really isn't a user problem, but that is an aside.

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