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A lot of the time when working in DevOps, documentation and code snippets from colleagues will be based on bash. Most of those same commands work seamlessly in PowerShell; but setting environment variables doesn't; e.g. export DEMO_CLIENT_ID="ff3b7b84-e041-4e76-993e-239930808aa7".

I've written the below function so I can more easily just copy-paste these snippets and have them work without needing a rewrite:

Function Export {
    $regex = [System.Text.RegularExpressions.Regex]::new('^\s*([^=]+?)\s*=(.*)$')
    $result = $regex.Match(($args -join ' '))
    if (!$result.Success) {
        throw "Could not set an environment variable based on [$($args -join ' ')]"
    }
    [Environment]::SetEnvironmentVariable($result.Groups[1].Value, $result.Groups[2].Value)
}

This works well for most real world examples I've hit so far... but I'm sure there are gotchas lurking (e.g. I know that multiple spaces will be squashed to a single space when the split arguments are re-joined... which may be an issue in some scenarios).

Is there a better approach to this, or are there improvements I can make to avoid this and similar/unforeseen pitfalls?

Note: I know the function name doesn't meet best practices (i.e. verb-noun naming)... My only use case for this function is to simulate the export command; so I figured giving it a verb noun name and then aliasing that was just adding complexity with no benefit.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ I've also submitted a suggestion to provide native support for export in pwsh: github.com/PowerShell/PowerShell/issues/20475 \$\endgroup\$
    – JohnLBevan
    Oct 11, 2023 at 18:25
  • \$\begingroup\$ Where does this DEMO_CLIENT_ID="ff3b7b84-e041-4e76-993e-239930808aa7" string come from? What I mean: why not using the native hash table syntax: Export @{ DEMO_CLIENT_ID="ff3b7b84-e041-4e76-993e-239930808aa7"; Name="Value" }? \$\endgroup\$
    – iRon
    Oct 12, 2023 at 8:37
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ @iRon That's just an example of how one would assign a value to an environment variable in shell script. I agree that a hash table would be a good approach if defining a new solution from scratch; but my aim is to make something that accepts the sorts of commands you see all over the web; e.g. developer.hashicorp.com/terraform/cli/config/… \$\endgroup\$
    – JohnLBevan
    Oct 12, 2023 at 9:42

2 Answers 2

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  • The PowerShell-idiomatic approach is to:

    • Define a command (function) that adheres to PowerShell's <verb>-<noun> naming convention, using one of the approved verbs.

    • Use an alias to provide another, typically shorter, name for the command, that isn't bound by this convention.

  • Using -split, the string splitting operator, limiting the number of resulting tokens to 2, allows you to split each name-value pair into its constituent parts, and the Env: drive can be used to define a process-scoped environment variable for each pair.

  • Given that the export builtin in POSIX-compatible shells such as Bash accepts multiple <name>=<value> pairs (e.g. export FOO='bar none' BAZ=2), so does the function below.

    • Caveat: POSIX-compatible shells allow defining environment variables without a value (e.g. export FOO), which PowerShell and .NET do not support: assigning $null or '' invariably undefines (removes) an environment variable there.
      Therefore, the function below only accepts <name>=<value> pairs, and reports a non-terminating error if a given argument lacks an = or a value thereafter.
Set-Alias export Set-EnvironmentVariableByNameValuePair

function Set-EnvironmentVariableByNameValuePair {
  param(
    [Parameter(Mandatory, ValueFromPipeline, ValueFromRemainingArguments)]
    [string[]] $NameValuePair
  )
  process {
    foreach ($pair in $NameValuePair) {
       $name, $value = $pair -split '=', 2
       if (-not $name -or -not $value) { Write-Error "Not in <name>=<value> format: `"$pair`". For technical reasons, you must supply a value."; continue }
       Set-Content Env:$name $value
    }
  }
}

Note:

  • The above is more permissive than POSIX-compatible shells with respect to the names of environment variables - even though names that do not adhere to the constraints spelled out below are supported by the underlying platforms themselves.

  • If you want to enforce the same name constraints that Bash does, insert the following before the Set-Content call:

    if ($name -notmatch '^[a-z_]\w*$') { Write-Error "Invalid name: $name"; continue } 
    
  • See also:

    • GitHub issue #3316, which asks for PowerShell to support the / something like the concise syntax that POSIX-compatible shells offer for defining child-process-scoped environment variables (e.g. FOO='bar none' BAZ=2 some_utility ...)
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  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ This is fantastic -- thank-you for improving it so much. I wasn't aware of the multiple assignment option; great catch there. \$\endgroup\$
    – JohnLBevan
    Oct 12, 2023 at 9:40
1
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Yes, you're quite right, the "export" name is just fine.

You started with an anchoring ^ caret -- kudos for that!

non-greedy

([^=]+?)\s*=(.*)

We have a "lazy" +? in there. I don't understand why.

Now, I will grant you that export EQUATION=y-x=0 potentially poses an issue, since second capturing group needs to be y-x=0. But you already dealt with that, very nicely, using the "all but = equal-sign" character class. There's no danger of first group capturing EQUATION=y-x. So the lazy ? quantifier seems redundant.

This leaves the Gentle Reader speculating that maybe the \s* optional whitespace match is relevant? But with no visible suite of test strings it's hard to see what Author anticipated. Please add a test suite.

Recommend you delete the lazy ? quantifier.

That \s* optional whitespace match makes perfect sense. Perhaps you would also like to strip leading blanks that come after the = equal-sign?

It is possible for bash to define an empty env var, e.g. $ export FOO=. But for your human-oriented use case, maybe you'd prefer .+ over .* ? So we will call out a truncated copy-n-paste with a fatal diagnostic message?


quoting, interpolation

Sometimes documentation will say things like

$ export FOO="bar"
$ export FOO='baz'
$ export FOO=$PATH:/my/directory

I feel that stripping balanced double-quotes, or single-quotes, would be a win.

Emulating $ dollar-sign interpolation might pose some challenges for you. Consider raising fatal error when you see one. The flip side is I have occasionally encountered credentials like this:

$ export VENDOR_API_SECRET='123speciaLcharacter$dollar*star'

(And then it's common enough to see wrong quoting produce 123speciaLcharacter*star on some production linux server.)

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  • \$\begingroup\$ Thanks for your response. Good point on the non-greedy piece already being taken care of by [^=]; my mistake. Great point also on quotes and dollars... I'll have a think on how those work, as they've special meanings in both languages, so could be complicated... \$\endgroup\$
    – JohnLBevan
    Oct 11, 2023 at 19:54
  • \$\begingroup\$ I'll also add some examples for testing soon... great point. Getting late here now so probably won't be until tomorrow evening. \$\endgroup\$
    – JohnLBevan
    Oct 11, 2023 at 19:55

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