Functions and type hints are your friend - use them
Vectorise your separate alpha values and calculations to a single calculation for each of perpendicular and parallel arrays
np.linspace(0, 180, int(round(180/1 + 1))) is a slightly bizarre way of writing np.arange(181)
Do not pow(x, 0.5); use np.sqrt
"13" is a quantity in inches. If you're ...