A generic term meaning the process by which text transformed into a more meaningful or clearer output. A typical example would be the transformation of a decimal into a particular currency format with the correct number of decimal places.
Also called programming style or coding convention, a set of guide-lines how to style and format your text to make it more read- and maintain-able.
Determines how you should print a date, a double or any other data-type. Either by adding extra indentation, white-spaces or punctuation.