Eloquent is Laravel's own object-relational mapper. It is named "Eloquent" because it allows you to work with your database objects and relationships using an eloquent and expressive syntax.
According to the official documentation
The Eloquent ORM included with Laravel provides a beautiful, simple ActiveRecord implementation for working with your database. Each database table has a corresponding "Model" which is used to interact with that table. Models allow you to query for data in your tables, as well as insert new records into the table.