Questions about complex numbers (numbers in the form of x + y∙i where i² = -1), types to represent them in programming languages, and libraries to manipulate them

The complex numbers extend the real numbers to allow negative numbers to have a square root. Every complex number can be expressed in the form x + y * i where x and y are real numbers and i² = -1; this is called the rectangular form of the number. The rectangular form leads to an interpretation of complex numbers as points on a plane, the same way real numbers are akin to points on a line. If y = 0, the number is a real number; if x = 0, the number is called an imaginary number.

A nonzero complex number has a family of representations in the form r exp(i φ) with r > 0, called the polar representation.

Representation and manipulation in programming languages

Floating point complex numbers

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