# Questions tagged [python-3.x]

Python 3 is the latest version of the Python programming language and was formally released on December 3rd, 2008. Use this tag along with the main python tag to denote programs that are meant to be run on a Python 3 interpreter only. Do not mix this tag with the python-2.x tag.

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### Decision tree for binary classification

I want to become a good Python programmer and so I'd like to know what in my code practices I can improve. Overall I feel like a pretty solid programmer but writing this code felt very "Java" so I am ...
2k views

### Primality test using recursion

For the given below exercise: Here is one method to check if a number is prime: ...
1k views

### Square spiral matrix

I've written a Python script to generate the closest square spiral matrix to a given number. I'm new to code reviews as a practice, and I'm interested in ways to improve. Please suggest improvements ...
103 views

### Factors sieve optimization

I've written a more powerful version of the Sieve of Eratosthenes, this Sieve returns the number of factors of all the numbers below the limit.Sadly the running ...
738 views

### Function returning higher order function

For the below given exercise: Define a function cycle which takes in three functions as arguments: f1, f2, f3. cycle will then return another function. The returned fuction should take in an ...
3k views

### Amazon web scraper

I am trying to improve my programming and programming design skills (poor at the moment). I created a small Amazon scraper program. It is a working program. I would be very grateful if you could ...
334 views

### Conway's Game of Life (follow-up)

I asked for a review of my code, and after making the suggested changes I feel that now the OOP version is clearer in its meaning and overall the code looks cleaner. ...
8k views

### Conway's Game of Life in Python3

I've implemented Game of Life in Python for a programming problem, in two different versions: one is a simple script and the other uses a class with a dictionary to initialize the various parameters. ...
819 views

### Soundcloud to CSV File

This program connects to Soundcloud and turns the supplied username into a CSV file with the user's like list. The code accomplishes this although it looks rather messy and was wondering what I could ...
74 views

### If a message is there, but you cannot see it, is it really there?

I have created a space encoder program, because it is fun to generate invisible messages. (This programme is not cryptographically secure, it is just for fun) ...
250 views

### Dumping fields from Python objects

I am writing a small class that has one method: get_state. It is parameterless and returns a dictionary of all the names in self (look in its dict) that are not ...
4k views

### Using recursion to count nodes in a binary tree, test equality of linked lists, and find extrema of a linked list

I am working with a some small functions to test recursion. I am fairly new to Python and am wondering if there is a cleaner way to get the job done. ...
847 views

### Counting the frequency of letters in a string slices

While preparing a solution for the CodeChef - magic tricks, an easy question about counting the frequency of given character from the string slice, I came up with the following solution: ...
12k views

### ASCII-fication of playing cards

I am making a small Blackjack game in Python 3. The part of the code I am unsure about is that which allows me to print nice ASCII versions of the card. ...
18k views

### Manipulating CSV files to regular text file

At my job, often I have to manually convert *.csv Files structured like: number,number\n number,number\n number,number\n ... To a regular *.txt file with the ...
2k views

### Removing graph nodes of a specific type and with exactly two neighbors

I am working with an undirected, weighted graph. It contains two types of nodes, called "A-type" and "B-type". I am starting with a set of tuples of the following ...
1k views

### Dictionary with restricted keys

I'm currently building some software that works with systemd unit files, and I've been trying to improve how we construct the unit files. This is all running in Python 3.4 This first block is the ...
3k views

### Failing fast by raising an exception with a custom message

This is a script that utilizes lazy exception throwing. What I do is decorate a function that might throw an exception to throw an exception with a formatted string. ...
1k views

### Latitude/longitude waypoint distance calculations, crosstrack, VMG, ETA, etc

I'm in the process of a complete re-write of a stagnant and ill-conceived project. I would like some feedback on the following Python 2.7-3.4 code, before I go any deeper into it. I would hope it is ...
76 views

### Converting xy coordinates to theta without discontinutities

This one is, or rather, should be, fairly simple. I have a list of tuples of XY positions, and am trying to pull out angles relative to the origin from it. However, unlike ...
2k views

### Functional programming approach to repeated function application

Control like if..else and while If $f$ is a numerical function and $n$ is a positive integer, then we can form the $n$...
2k views

This is the first coding class I've taken and I'm not getting much feedback from the instructor. The function of this program is to take two roman numeral inputs, convert them to arabic, add them ...
87 views

### Factorisation code running slow

I'm still in the process of learning Python and am doing some of the Project Euler problems. I have made a factorisation algorithm that works; however, it runs really slowly, and I'm not too well-...
896 views

### Summation and product functions using functional paradigm

Below is the problem: Show that both summation and product are instances of a more general function, called accumulate, with the following signature: ...
2k views

I've made some CAPTCHA reader and maker in Python using Tkinter. Do you know if it's possible to keep image and output files in "memory" not writing them on disc? Because right now everything is '...
43k views

### Simple Rock, Paper, Scissors in Python

I have looked at many different approaches to this game online, but as someone who isn't very experienced with Python, I may not be aware of what others are doing right. ...
132 views

### Project Euler #10 in Cython

I'm trying to teach myself some Cython. To do so, I use Project Euler #10: The sum of the primes below 10 is 2 + 3 + 5 + 7 = 17. 2 Find the sum of all the primes below two million. My Cython ...
636 views

### Counting Lines and Sum of Lines

I have a small function that when passed a str that names a file that contains a program; it returns a 2-tuple with the number of the non-empty lines in that program, and the sum of the lengths of all ...
5k views

### Recursive functions for sorting

I made a few recursive functions for learning purposes which do a variety of tasks. Here is my current and functioning code: ...
1k views

### Functions with mutable and non-mutable named tuples

I am making some functions within a function for learning which when passed information about a named tuple: it returns a reference to a class object from which we can construct instances of the ...
983 views

### Flooring cost calculator

I've made a small program that calculates the cost of flooring for a given area based on the price per sqft and total sqft. I have only been programming for a few days now so I am sure that there are ...
214 views

### Two permutation iterators for classes in Python with and without a generator

I am just testing out a couple of small classes for learning purposes. Here is my current working code: ...
343 views

### Functions taking iterables: peaks, compress, and skipper

I am just testing out a few small functions for learning purposes: ...
13k views

### Hailstone Sequences in Python

For the problem given: Douglas Hofstadter’s Pulitzer-prize-winning book, Gödel, Escher, Bach, poses the following mathematical puzzle. Pick a positive integer $n$ as the start. If $n$ is ...
282 views

pwgen is a nice password generator utility. When you run it, it fills the terminal with a bunch of random passwords, giving you many options to choose from and ...
12k views

### Disjoint-set data structure in Python 3

Inspired by this question, I decided to implement a Disjoint-set data structure in Python 3. I mainly followed this description for understanding the algorithm (but did not do the optimizations for ...
166 views

### Little command line video grabber

I made a little Python3 script to grab video clips from a website for viewing off-line later and would like your critique, advice, tips & tricks and/or learning resources to create better code. (...
3k views

### Expiring in-memory cache module

I needed a simple expiring in-memory cache module for a project I'm working on and I've come up with the following. My requirements for the cache module are: Be able to expire objects after certain ...
91 views

### Solution for puzzle 3d x 1d = 2d x 2d in Python

I wanted to resolve the puzzle from this link using Python 3. It works and gives me the correct value but I would like to know if it is possible to resolve this problem with a few lines or how I can ...
5k views

### Bag data structure (a set that can store multiple copies of items)

I am trying to make my class a bit cleaner, especially some of its methods like Count, __add__, ...
337 views

### Modeling a Mage character from nWoD, using Django

Goal Design a representation of a mage character from the World of Darkness RPG, as well their associated spells. Here is a visual representation of the schema. You can see it more closely on ...
55 views

### Python object modelling with ABCs

I'm modelling the core entities in a callcenter-related system that deals with Operators and groups ("pools") of them. While I've written some Python before, this is my first time building a larger ...
1k views

### Python decorator for optional arguments decorator

I want my Python decorators to have optional arguments and not be called when not necessary. The accepted answer in here doesn't accept named arguments, and I don't want to add boilerplate code ...
6k views

### Create SQLite backups

I have this script for creating SQLite backups, and I was wondering whether you'd have any suggestions on how to improve this. I was thinking that maybe it should create the backup ...
761 views

### Interleaving values from several iterables

I am new to Python and am trying to see if there is a cleaner way to write my code. The following code take iterables as parameter it produces the first value from the first parameter, then the first ...
7k views

### All-in-one number base converter

I coded this program as a challenge for /r/dailyprogrammer. Basically this program can convert any number from any base to another base including negative bases as long as the input is coherent. Did I ...
1k views

### Simple encryption based on MD5

I made a Python 3(.4.2) program that only adds classes and is meant to be imported. It allows the creation of files that store usernames and hashed passwords. It uses salting as well. It also can ...
401 views

### Project Euler #14 solution takes quite a long time

Can anybody give me suggestions for making it faster? (Project Euler #14) ...