The code below is a publisher base class. I've never really liked the way I implemented this class. Are there any improvements/simplifications I can make to it?

Background: The execute(...) method is called periodically from ServiceImpl. ServiceImpl is just a generic service class.

package me.munyengm.core.publish;

import static akka.dispatch.Futures.future;

import java.io.ByteArrayOutputStream;
import java.io.PrintWriter;
import java.util.Comparator;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.concurrent.Callable;
import java.util.concurrent.atomic.AtomicLong;

import org.apache.log4j.Logger;

import akka.actor.TypedActor;

import com.google.common.collect.FluentIterable;
import com.loudsight.utilities.Cast;
import com.loudsight.utilities.service.ServiceImpl;
import com.loudsight.utilities.service.core.subscribe.Subscriber;

public abstract class PublisherImpl<T> extends ServiceImpl implements Publisher<T> {
    private static final Logger logger = Logger.getLogger(PublisherImpl.class);

    protected static class SubscriberInfoImpl<T> implements Subscription<T> {
        private static final AtomicLong nextId = new AtomicLong();
        private final Subscriber subscriber;
        private final long subscriberId;
        private final T subscriptionData;
        private long updateInterval;
        private long lastRefresh;

        SubscriberInfoImpl(Subscriber subscriber, T subscriptionData, long updateInterval, long lastRefresh) {
            this.subscriber = subscriber;
            this.subscriberId = nextId.incrementAndGet();
            this.subscriptionData = subscriptionData;
            this.updateInterval = updateInterval;
            this.lastRefresh = lastRefresh;

        @Override public long refreshInterval() { return updateInterval; }
        @Override public void setRefreshInterval(long updateInterval) { this.updateInterval = updateInterval; }
        @Override public long getSubscriberId() { return subscriberId;}
        @Override public T getSubscriptionData() { return subscriptionData; }
        @Override public Subscriber getSubscriber() { return subscriber; }
        @Override public long getLastRefresh() { return lastRefresh; }
        @Override public void setLastRefresh(long lastRefresh) { this.lastRefresh = lastRefresh; }

        public boolean equals(Object obj) {
            if ((obj != null) && (obj instanceof Subscription)) {
                Subscription<T> info = Cast.uncheckedCast(obj);

                return getSubscriberId() == info.getSubscriberId();
            return false;

        public int hashCode() {
            return Long.valueOf(getSubscriberId()).hashCode();

    Comparator<Subscription<T>> c = (o1, o2) -> {
        if (o2.getSubscriberId() != o1.getSubscriberId()) {
            long timeToWait1 = calculateTimeToWait(o1);
            long timeToWait2 = calculateTimeToWait(o2);

            return Long.compare(timeToWait1, timeToWait2);
        return 0;

    private final Map<Long, Subscription<T>> subscriptionMap = new HashMap<>();
    private final long startTime = System.currentTimeMillis();

    protected PublisherImpl() {

    @Override public void onSubscribe(Subscription<T> subscription) { }

    @Override public void onUnsubscribe(final long subscriptionId) { }

    public final long subscribe(final Subscriber subscriber, final T eventItem, final long updateInterval) {

        Subscription<T> subscription = new SubscriberInfoImpl<>(subscriber, eventItem, updateInterval, 0);
        Publisher<T> this_ = TypedActor.self();
        subscriptionMap.put(subscription.getSubscriberId(), subscription);
        asynchronouslyExecute(() -> {
            return null;

        return subscription.getSubscriberId();

    public void resubscribe(long subscriptionId, long updateInterval) {
        Subscription<T> subscription = getSubscriberBySubscriptionId(subscriptionId);

    protected Subscription<T> getSubscriberBySubscriptionId(final long subscriptionId) {
        return subscriptionMap.get(subscriptionId);

    public final void unsubscribe(final long subscriptionId) {

    public List<Subscription<T>> getSubscribers() {
        return FluentIterable.from(subscriptionMap.values()).toList();

    long calculateTimeToWait(Subscription<T> info) {
        long currentTimeMillis = System.currentTimeMillis();
        long nextExecutionTime = info.getLastRefresh() + info.refreshInterval();

        return Math.abs(currentTimeMillis - nextExecutionTime) * (nextExecutionTime / currentTimeMillis);

    public long getStartTime() {
        return startTime;

    public boolean execute() throws  Throwable {

        try {
            List<Subscription<T>> readySubscriptions = FluentIterable.from(getSubscribers())
                    .filter(s -> (calculateTimeToWait(s) == 0))
            long currentTimeMillis = System.currentTimeMillis();

            readySubscriptions.forEach( s -> {
                long refreshTime = getExecutionTime(currentTimeMillis, s.refreshInterval());
            return true;
        } catch (Exception t) {
            ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
            t.printStackTrace(new PrintWriter(baos, true));
            t = null;

            throw new ServiceException(baos.toString("UTF-8"));

    long getExecutionTime(long currentTimeMillis, long updateInterval) {
        long numberOfPeriods = (currentTimeMillis - startTime) / updateInterval;

        return startTime + (numberOfPeriods * updateInterval);

    protected void asynchronouslyExecute(Callable<Void> job) {
        future(job, TypedActor.dispatcher());

1 Answer 1


So, there are a few things I don't like about this class.

Probably the biggest is that you're violating the SRP. That one type defines a Service, a Publisher, and a Subscriber.

Service classes should not extend Service. There should be one class that handles all the service-specific functionality, and it accepts some interface defining the service to be run. Conceptually, it should work exactly like Thread/Executor and Runnable, but presumably with more configuration options available. As it stands, it's very hard on casual inspection to see what is Service-specific and what is Publisher/Subscriber specific. It would also better if the Subscriber was its own top-level class.

It is very nonstandard for an Impl class to be abstract.

It looks like the extensibility of PublisherImpl has been poorly thought out. Some methods that look like they should be final aren't. There's no documentation to explain the intended use. Are you sure that you don't want a final PublisherImpl class which can accept PublisherListeners?

  • \$\begingroup\$ Thanks for the feedback much appreciated! The biggest issue which was so obvious (in hindsight) and the root of my discomfort with the class is the SRP voliolation. I think a lot of the other issues stem from this. \$\endgroup\$
    – munyengm
    Jan 20, 2015 at 16:52
  • \$\begingroup\$ @munyengm No problem. Good luck going forward! \$\endgroup\$
    – Eric Stein
    Jan 20, 2015 at 17:26

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