I made a program, but I not happy with the quantity of code. The end result is good, but I believe it can be made much easier, only I don't know how.

The functionality: If equal items > 1 in list, then assign all equal items a unique set number. Below I made a unit test. I'm not happy with the class CreatSet. Can somebody advise me on how this can be implemented better?

import unittest

class Curtain(object):
  def __init__(self, type, fabric, number):
      self.type = type
      self.fabric = fabric
      self.number = number
      self.set_number = None

  def __str__(self):
      return '%s %s %s %s' % (self.number, self.type, self.fabric, self.set_name)

  def __eq__(self, other):
      return self.type == other.type and self.fabric == other.fabric

class CreatSet(object):
  def make_unique(self, original_list):
      checked = []
      for e in original_list:
          # If curtain: type and fabric is equal
          if e not in checked:
      return checked

  def create_set(self, curtains):
      # Uniuqe items in list
      unique_list = self.make_unique(curtains)
      result = []
      for x in unique_list:
          # Create set list
          set_range = []
          for y in curtains:
              if y == x:
          # Add set range into list

      # Create set number
      set_result = []
      set_number = 0
      for x in result:
          if len(x) == 1:
              set_number += 1
              for y in x:
                  y.set_number = set_number
      # Return list ordered by number
      return sorted(set_result, key=lambda curtain: curtain.number)

class TestCreateSet(unittest.TestCase):
    def setUp(self):
      self.curtains = []
      self.curtains.append(Curtain('pleatcurtain', 'pattern', 0))
      self.curtains.append(Curtain('pleatcurtain', 'plain', 1))
      self.curtains.append(Curtain('pleatcurtain', 'pattern', 2))
      self.curtains.append(Curtain('foldcurtain', 'pattern', 3))
      self.curtains.append(Curtain('pleatcurtain', 'plain', 4))
      self.curtains.append(Curtain('foldcurtain', 'plain', 5))
      self.curtains.append(Curtain('pleatcurtain', 'pattern', 6))
      self.curtains.append(Curtain('foldcurtain', 'pattern', 7))

    def test_auto_set(self):
      creat_set = CreatSet()
      result = creat_set.create_set(self.curtains)
      # Creating set
      self.assertEqual(result[0].set_number, 1)  # pleatcurtain, pattern
      self.assertEqual(result[1].set_number, 2)  # pleatcurtain, plain
      self.assertEqual(result[2].set_number, 1)  # pleatcurtain, pattern
      self.assertEqual(result[3].set_number, 3)  # foldcurtain, pattern
      self.assertEqual(result[4].set_number, 2)  # pleatcurtain, plain
      self.assertEqual(result[5].set_number, None)  # foldcurtain, plain
      self.assertEqual(result[6].set_number, 1)  # pleatcurtain, pattern
      self.assertEqual(result[7].set_number, 3)  # foldcurtain, pattern

if __name__ == '__main__':

As you've already implemented Curtain.__eq__, if you also implement Curtain.__hash__ you can use it as a dictionary (or collections.Counter...) key, or a set member:

def __hash__(self):
    return hash(self.type) ^ hash(self.fabric)

Now make_unique is trivial:

def make_unique(self, original_list):
    return set(original_list)

(Note: if you require order to be retained, this will need additional work.)

This also allows you to easily determine how many of each distinct Curtain you have:

>>> from collections import Counter
>>> Counter(curtains)
Counter({<__main__.Curtain object at 0x02A15190>: 3, 
         <__main__.Curtain object at 0x031A0CF0>: 2, 
         <__main__.Curtain object at 0x031A0ED0>: 2, 
         <__main__.Curtain object at 0x0329EA30>: 1})

(Note: implementing Curtain.__repr__ would make this more readable!)

As pointed out in the comments, the __hash__ implementation I suggest has an issue - if either attribute type or fabric is changed, the hash will be different. You could protect these attributes by making them "read-only" using properties:

class Curtain(object):

    def __init__(self, type, ...):
        self._type = type # note leading underscore on attribute

    @property # defining setter but no getter
    def type(self):
        return self._type

Alternatively, you can implement Curtain.__lt__ etc., then sort the list and use itertools.groupby to get your groups of "equal" Curtains.

Either way, I would not implement CreatSet as a class, there's no need (as should be clear from the fact that there is no __init__ and no class or instance attributes). Just have one class, and two functions:

class Curtain(object):

def create_set(curtains):

def make_unique(curtains):

Your code is generally compliant with the style guide (well done!) but you could do with some explanatory docstrings.

| improve this answer | |
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ If __hash__ depends on mutable attributes, one must take care not to change those attributes while the objects are in a set or dict keys. I think that is begging for trouble. \$\endgroup\$ – Janne Karila Nov 11 '14 at 13:08
  • \$\begingroup\$ @JanneKarila that is a good point, I will edit to that effect \$\endgroup\$ – jonrsharpe Nov 11 '14 at 13:14
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Robert no problem. Note that if you make a Curtain hash-able, you can use Janne's answer using x as the key, rather than the tuple x.type, x.fabric. \$\endgroup\$ – jonrsharpe Nov 13 '14 at 10:43
  • Building the set_result list in create_set is not necessary, because the same objects are already in curtains. You can simply use

    return sorted(curtains, key=lambda curtain: curtain.number)
  • It might be better not to return any value from create_set. That would highlight the fact that it modifies the objects in place.

  • Here's my proposal for create_set that uses a defaultdict to accomplish both the detection of unique values and the grouping. However, your test will not pass because defaultdict is unordered, and therefore the numbers 1,2 and 3 can be assigned differently to the sets. If all you need are unique numbers, you could change the test not to expect an exact numbering. Note that this is a stand-alone function because there is no reason to put it in a class.

    def create_set(curtains):
        d = collections.defaultdict(list)
        for x in curtains:
            d[x.type, x.fabric].append(x)
        # Create set number
        set_number = 0
        for x in d.values():
            if len(x) > 1:
                set_number += 1
                for y in x:
                    y.set_number = set_number
| improve this answer | |
  • \$\begingroup\$ thanks for solution, this code is better, cleaner and nicer. I can't click twice on the button finding the solving my problem. Both feedback are great. \$\endgroup\$ – Robert Nov 13 '14 at 10:45

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