I'm new to Python (and generally to programming), and I have recently written this Minesweeper game:

import random
import string
import os
class Square(object):
    """Represent a square in the cell.

    mine -- if the square has a mine, it's True. Otherwise, False.
    location -- a tuple that represents the (x, y) of the square in the grid.
    grid -- the gird that has the square in it
    signs = ('*', ' ') + tuple([str(n) for n in range(1,9)])
    # reserved signs - the player can't mark a square with those signs
    # (signs of visible squares - it doesn't contain '.' because when the
    # player mark the square with '.', he cancels the previous sign)

    def __init__(self, mine, location, grid):
        self.mine = mine
        self.location = tuple(location)
        self.grid = grid
        self.sign = '.' # sign - how is the square represented to the user.
        self.visible = False # not visible yet
        assert self.legal_square()

    def __str__(self):
        return self.sign

    def expose(self):
        '''Make the square visible to the player (when he exposes it, for
        self.visible = True
        if self.has_mine():
            self.sign = '*' # The sign that means that the square has a mine
                            # and the player exposed it (he lost).

        elif self.num() == 0: # There are no mines near the square
            self.sign = ' '   # The sign that means that the square is clean,
                              # and there are no mines near it.

            x, y = self.location[0], self.location[1]
            # Expose all of the squares near the current square, and all of
            # the squares near them (recursively), until we reach squares
            # with numbers.
            for near_x in range(x-1, x+2):
                for near_y in range(y-1, y+2):
                    if not (near_x == x and near_y == y): # not the same square
                        self.grid.expose_square((near_x, near_y))
                        # If there's no square with these coordinates, this
                        # method returns so there's no any error.

        else: # If the square has no any mine, but there are mines near it.
            self.sign = str(self.num())

    def is_visible(self):
        '''Return True if the square is visible, False otherwise.'''
        return self.visible

    def has_mine(self):
        '''Return True if the square has a mine, False otherwise.'''
        return self.mine

    def num(self):
        '''Return the number of mines near the square.'''
        mines = 0
        x, y = self.location[0], self.location[1] # square's coordinates

        # every square near the current square
        for near_x in range(x-1, x+2):
            for near_y in range(y-1, y+2):
                if not (near_x == x and near_y == y): # not the same square
                    if self.grid.has_mine((near_x, near_y)): mines += 1
                    # If that square has a mine     
        return mines

    def mark(self, sign):
        '''Mark the square with the given sign.

        sign -- string
        if not self.is_visible() and sign not in Square.signs:
            # The player can only mark invisible squares, with unreserved marks
            self.sign = sign

    def legal_square(self):
        '''Return True if the square is legal, False otherwise.'''
        if not isinstance(self.location, tuple) or len(self.location) != 2:
            return False
        if not isinstance(self.location[0], int)\
         or not isinstance(self.location[1], int):
            return False
        if not isinstance(self.has_mine(), bool):
            return False
        if self.location[0] < 0 or self.location[1] < 0:
            return False
        if not isinstance(self.grid, Grid):
            return False
        if self.visible and (self.sign not in Square.signs):
            return False

        return True

class Grid(object):
    """Represent the grid of the Squares.

    width, height -- grid's dimensions
    mines -- number of mines in the grid
    def __init__(self, width=8, height=8, mines=10):
        self.width, self.height = width, height
        self.mines = mines
        self.create_grid(dummy=True)  # Create a dummy grid (before the first
                                      #                       turn)
        assert self.legal_grid()

    def __str__(self):
        return_s = ''

        width_col_header = len(to_base26(self.height))
        width_col = len(str(self.width))

        # Header row of the table
        return_s += (width_col_header+1) * ' '
        for col in range(len(self.grid[0])):
            return_s += ' {0:^{1}}'.format(col+1, width_col)
        return_s += '\n'
        # Border between header row and the rest of the table
        return_s += (width_col_header+1) * ' '
        for col in range(len(self.grid[0])):
            return_s += ' {0:^{1}}'.format('-', width_col)
        return_s += '\n'

        # The columns with the squares
        for row in range(len(self.grid)):
            return_s += '{0:>{1}}|'.format(to_base26(row+1), width_col_header)
            for square in self.grid[row]:
                return_s += ' {0:^{1}}'.format(square, width_col)
            return_s += '\n'
        return return_s

    def create_grid(self, dummy, safe_square=None):
        '''Create a grid (that consists of Squares).

        dummy -- In the first turn, we don't want  that the player will lose.
                 If there are still no mines, we will call the grid "dummy".
                 Set dummy to True if now is before the first turn, and False
        safe_square -- If dummy == True, don't assign a value to it. This is
                       a tuple that represents the x and y of the square that
                       the player chose. This square (and its adjacent squares)
                       should be clean of mines, because we don't want the
                       player will lose right after the first turn, but if now
                       is before the first turn, don't assign a value to it.
                       It's None as a default.
        safe_squares = [] # squares around the safe_square (including
                          #                                safe_square)
        if not dummy:
            # Initialize safe_squares
            for x in range(safe_square[0]-1, safe_square[0]+2):
                for y in range(safe_square[1]-1, safe_square[1]+2):
                    safe_squares.append((x, y))

        mines = [] # this list will represent the random locations of mines.
        # Initialize mines
        if not dummy:
            self.is_dummy = False

            # Set the random locations of mines.
            for mine in range(self.mines): # Until we reach the wanted number
                                           # of mines
                while True:
                    x, y = random.randint(0, self.width-1),\
                           random.randint(0, self.height-1)
                    # Random coordinates on the grid

                    if (x, y) not in mines and (x, y) not in safe_squares:
                        # If this is a new location, and not on the safe_square

                mines.append((x, y))
            self.is_dummy = True

        grid = [] # a list of rows of Squares
        for y in range(self.height):
            row = []
            for x in range(self.width):
                square = Square(((x, y) in mines), (x, y), self)
                # (x, y) in mines -- if (x, y) was chosen as a mine, it's True

        self.grid = grid

    def has_mine(self, location):
        '''Return True if the square in the given location has a mine, False

        location -- a tuple (x, y)
        y, x = location[1], location[0] # coordinates of the square
        if x < 0 or x >= self.width or y < 0 or y >= self.height:
            # If the square doesn't exist, just return False
            return False
        return self.grid[y][x].has_mine()

    def parse_input(self):
        '''Get a location from the player and a mark optionally, and return
        them as a tuple. If the player didn't insert a mark, its value in the
        tuple will be None.'''
        while True: # The only exit is from an exit statement - be careful
            s = raw_input('Type the location of the square you want to '
                          'treat. If you want to mark the square, type '
                          'after the location a space, and then the sign '
                          'you want to use. If you want to cancel a mark, '
                          '"mark" the square with a dot.\n')

            location = s.split()[0]
                sign = s.split()[1]
            except IndexError:
                sign = None

            letters = ''.join(c for c in location if c in string.letters)
            digits = ''.join((str(c) for c in location if c in string.digits))
            if (letters + digits != location and digits + letters != location)\
               or letters == '' or digits == '':
                # If the input is something like "A2B3" or "AA" or "34"
                print 'Please type an invalid location, like "AA12" or "12AA"'

            location = (int(digits)-1, base26to_num(letters)-1)

                x, y = location[0], location[1]
            except IndexError:
                print 'Ahhh... The square should be IN the grid.\n'

        return (location, sign)

    def turn(self):
        '''Let the player play a turn. Return 1 if the player won, -1 if he
        lost, and 0 if he can keep playing.'''
        os.system('cls' if os.name == 'nt' else 'clear') # clear screen
        print self
        location, sign = self.parse_input()
        x, y = location
        square = self.grid[y][x] # The square that the player wanted to treat
        if sign == None: # If the player didn't want to mark the square
            if self.is_dummy:
                self.create_grid(False, (x, y))
            self.expose_square((x, y)) # then he wanted to expose it

            if square.has_mine(): # If the square has a mine, the player lost
                return (-1) # lose

            # Check if the player won (if he exposed all of the clean squares)
            for row in self.grid:
                for square in row:
                    if not square.has_mine() and not square.is_visible():
                        # If there are clean squares that are not exposed
                        return 0 # not win, not lose
            else: # all of the clean squares are exposed
                return 1 # win
        else: # If the player wanted to mark a square
            return 0

    def play(self):
        '''Let the player play, until he finishes. Return True if he won, and
        False if he lost.'''
        result = 0
        while result == 0:
            result = self.turn()
        return result == 1

    def expose_square(self, location):
        '''Choose the square in the given location and expose it.'''
        y, x = location[1], location[0]
        if x < 0 or x >= self.width or y < 0 or y >= self.height:
            # if the square doesn't exist, do nothing
        if self.grid[y][x].is_visible():
            # if the square is already exposed, do nothing
        if str(self.grid[y][x]) != '.': # the player marked the square
        if self.is_dummy: # if it's the first turn, and there still aren't real
                          # mines,
            self.create_grid((x, y), False) # create a real grid
        square = self.grid[y][x] # the square of the given location

    def lose(self):
        '''Expose all of the squares that have mines, and print 'Game over'.'''
        os.system('cls' if os.name == 'nt' else 'clear') # clear screen
        # Expose all of the squares that have mines
        for x in range(self.width):
            for y in range(self.height):
                self.expose_square((x, y))

        print self # Print the grid with the mines
        print 'Game over.'

    def win(self):
        '''Print the grid and 'You won!'.'''
        os.system('cls' if os.name == 'nt' else 'clear') # clear screen
        print self
        print 'You won!'

    def legal_grid(self):
        if not isinstance(self.width, int) or not isinstance(self.height, int):
            return False
        if self.width <= 0 or self.height <= 0 or self.mines < 0:
            return False
        if not isinstance(self.mines, int):
            return False
        if self.mines > self.width*self.height-9:
            return False
        return True

def to_base26(num):
    '''Convert a number to a string, that represents the number in base-26,
    without a zero.
    to_base26(1) => 'A'
    to_base26(2) => 'B'
    to_base26(28) => 'AB'

    num: number
    Return: str
    s = ''
    while num > 0:
        num -= 1
        s = chr(ord('A')+num%26) + s
        num //= 26

    return s

def base26to_num(s):
    '''Convert a string that represents a number in base-26 (1 = 'A',
    28 = 'AB', etc.) to a number.
    base26to_num('A') => 1
    base26to_num('b') => 2
    base26to_num('AB') => 28

    s: str
    Return: number
    s = ''.join(c for c in s if c in string.letters).upper()
    num = 0
    for letter in s:
        num = num*26 + (ord(letter)-ord('A')) + 1

    return num

grid = Grid(9, 9, 10)

The code works well as far as I know, but I'm not sure if it follows good practices, or how readable and efficient is it.

  • \$\begingroup\$ Wheres the part that creates the x and allows the user to input the position if the x? \$\endgroup\$ – Thomas Briers Nov 10 '16 at 11:20

Purely from an OOP standpoint, I think that your classes don't make much sense.

Square should just be a square, it shouldn't modify any other square (as you do so in your expose function). In fact, a square doesn't even need to know it's own location (as its container should handle that) or its container. I would have a bare-bones square class with only its contents and an expose method that exposes itself and nothing else.

Grid is doing too much. It is simultaneously doing the job of a grid (working with squares) while also incorporating most of the game logic. I would move most of the game logic to another class (described below) and move the expose square logic to here. Also I think adding a tuple of tuples of Squares for the grid data structure would make sense.

Add a MineSweeper class that contains most of the actual game logic (input, redraw and etc) that is currently in Grid.

In general, your code should try to follow the single responsibility principle. That is, make each of your classes/functions responsible for one thing and one thing only. Note: this means creating functions for things like iterating over the neighbors and etc.

On the programming side:

There is no reason to generate a dummy grid and then generate a real grid. Create the real grid, and then if the first click is on a mine, move the mine somewhere else.

Your code may break if the number of mines is especially high. This is because you keep trying to generate random locations that haven't been used up in a while true: loop, which will keep your code running until the end of time if there are no spots left. I would take a look at some of the other mine generation algorithms that have been used over the years. Alternatively, you can chop your grid up into mines - 10 equal pieces, choose a random position within those sub-grids to add a mine, and finally distributing the last 10 randomly amongst the sub-grids. Take care to make sure that you aren't adding too many mines.

  • \$\begingroup\$ Thanks a lot, that will make more sense. (Pay attention that the number of mines can't be greater than the number of squares because of the method legal_grid) \$\endgroup\$ – MrHezi Jul 26 '14 at 8:45
  • \$\begingroup\$ Ah, didn't catch that, edited my answer to change that. \$\endgroup\$ – mleyfman Jul 26 '14 at 17:10

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