# Finding a zero crossing in a matrix

I am trying create an algorithm for finding the zero crossing (check that the signs of all the entries around the entry of interest are not the same) in a two dimensional matrix, as part of implementing the Laplacian of Gaussian edge detection filter for a class, but I feel like I'm fighting against Numpy instead of working with it.

import numpy as np

range_inc = lambda start, end: range(start, end+1)

# Find the zero crossing in the l_o_g image
# Done in the most naive way possible
def z_c_test(l_o_g_image):
print(l_o_g_image)
z_c_image = np.zeros(l_o_g_image.shape)
for i in range(1, l_o_g_image.shape - 1):
for j in range(1, l_o_g_image.shape - 1):
neg_count = 0
pos_count = 0
for a in range_inc(-1, 1):
for b in range_inc(-1, 1):
if a != 0 and b != 0:
print("a ", a, " b ", b)
if l_o_g_image[i + a, j + b] < 0:
neg_count += 1
print("neg")
elif l_o_g_image[i + a, j + b] > 0:
pos_count += 1
print("pos")
else:
print("zero")

# If all the signs around the pixel are the same
# and they're not all zero
# then it's not a zero crossing and an edge.
# Otherwise, copy it to the edge map.
z_c = ((neg_count > 0) and (pos_count > 0))

if z_c:
print("True for", i, ",", j)
print("pos ", pos_count, " neg ", neg_count)
z_c_image[i, j] = 1

return z_c_image


Here is the test cases it should pass:

test1 = np.array([[0,0,1], [0,0,0], [0,0,0]])
test2 = np.array([[0,0,1], [0,0,0], [0,0,-1]])
test3 = np.array([[0,0,0], [0,0,-1], [0,0,0]])
test4 = np.array([[0,0,0], [0,0,0], [0,0,0]])
true_result = np.array([[0,0,0], [0,1,0], [0,0,0]])
false_result = np.array([[0,0,0], [0,0,0], [0,0,0]])

real_result1 = z_c_test(test1)
real_result2 = z_c_test(test2)
real_result3 = z_c_test(test3)
real_result4 = z_c_test(test4)

assert(np.array_equal(real_result1, false_result))
assert(np.array_equal(real_result2, true_result))
assert(np.array_equal(real_result3, false_result))
assert(np.array_equal(real_result4, false_result))


How do I vectorize checking a property in a matrix range? Is there a quick way of accessing all of the entries adjacent to an entry in a matrix?

• adjacent meaning N,S,W,E or the 8 (or just 3) around the checked? currently it looks like the NSWE solution, but just to make sure. – Vogel612 Mar 27 '14 at 8:18
• It's supposed to be the 8. – Seanny123 Mar 27 '14 at 8:26
• @Vogel612 As shown in the unit tests and with my very awkward iteration using a and b. – Seanny123 Mar 27 '14 at 8:36
• you might want to have a look at this answer – Vogel612 Mar 27 '14 at 9:01
• You can try to either express this operation as a convolution, which I am not sure if your check can be expressed as. Otherwise, the function scipy.ndimage.filters.generic_filter with size set to 3 should leave you with only writing a short function doing the check on the vector of neighborhood elements. – ojdo Apr 17 '14 at 15:12

Here's concise method to get the coordinates of the zero-crossings that seems to work according to my tests :

def zcr(x, y):
return x[numpy.diff(numpy.sign(y)) != 0]


Some simple test case :

>>> zcr(numpy.array([0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]), [1, 2, 3, -1, -2, 3, 4, -4])
array([2, 4, 6])


This is 2d only, but I believe it is easy to adapt to more dimensions.

One way to get the neighbor coordinates without checking for (a != 0) or (b != 0) on every iteration would be to use a generator. Something like this:

def nborz():
l = [(-1,-1), (-1,0), (-1,1), (0,-1), (0,1), (1,-1),(1,0),(1,1)]
try:
while True:
yield l.pop(0)
except StopIteration:
return None
....

for i in range(1,l_o_g_image.shape-1):
for j in range(1,l_o_g_image.shape-1):
neg_count = 0
pos_count = 0
nbrgen = nborz()
for (a,b) in nbrgen:
print "a " + str(a) + " b " + str(b)
if(l_o_g_image[i+a,j+b] < 0):
neg_count += 1
print "neg"
elif(l_o_g_image[i+a,j+b] > 0):
pos_count += 1
print "pos"
else:
print "zero"

• Would that actually be faster? – Seanny123 Apr 20 '14 at 6:02
• I would think it might, 1) because it avoids a comparison on every iteration of the inner loops, and 2) because it avoids computation of the index values for the inner loops (counting -1, 0, 1 twice in a nested fashion). However, I have not actually tried it so I don't know for sure. – Tom Barron Apr 20 '14 at 10:43