This is an algorithm I'm trying to optimize. I was trying to use openMP without any success.

I know the code is long but most of it is params init.

Please try to explain why I need to change any line of code. I want to learn. I also wish to understand if using openMP is the best way for matrix based algorithms.

void CAlgo::runAlgo()
    int             nbr_TBL_RES[Algo_NBR_SZ][Algo_NBR_SZ] ;
    int             TBL        [Algo_NUM_CANDIDATE]       ; 
    int             expIn      [Algo_NUM_CANDIDATE]       ;  
    int             W          [Algo_NUM_CANDIDATE]       ; 
    unsigned int    WShift1    [Algo_NUM_CANDIDATE]       ;
    unsigned int    WShift2    [Algo_NUM_CANDIDATE]       ; 
    bool            WSubFlag   [Algo_NUM_CANDIDATE]       ; 
    int             meanP                                 ; 
    unsigned int    meanPShift1                           ; 
    unsigned int    meanPShift2                           ; 
    bool            meanPSubFlag                          ; 
    unsigned int    TBLShift1                             ; 
    unsigned int    TBLShift2                             ; 
    bool            TBLSubFlag                            ; 
    int             sigmaP                                ; 
    int             eta                                   ; 
    unsigned int    etaShift1                             ; 
    unsigned int    etaShift2                             ; 
    bool            etaSubFlag                            ;     
    unsigned int    rSqrShift1                            ; 
    unsigned int    rSqrShift2                            ; 
    bool            rSqrSubFlag                           ;
    int             RxSqr                                 ; 
    int             RySqr                                 ; 
    unsigned int    rPwrShift1                            ; 
    unsigned int    rPwrShift2                            ; 
    bool            rPwrSubFlag                           ;     

    int             alpha0                                ; 
    int             WSum                                  ; 
    int             PAvrg                                 ;     
    unsigned int    alphaShift1                           ; 
    unsigned int    alphaShift2                           ; 
    bool            alphaSubFlag                          ; 

    unsigned int    ind;
    int             Rx,Ry ;
    int             wMax[4]                               ; 
    int             dP                                    ; 
    int             Pout                                  ; 

    int i0 = Algo_NBR_SZ/2 - Algo_PATCH_SZ/2 + Algo_FILT_PIXEL_dY;
    int i1 = Algo_NBR_SZ/2 + Algo_PATCH_SZ/2 - Algo_FILT_PIXEL_dY;
    int j0 = Algo_NBR_SZ/2 - Algo_PATCH_SZ/2 + Algo_FILT_PIXEL_dX;
    int j1 = Algo_NBR_SZ/2 + Algo_PATCH_SZ/2 - Algo_FILT_PIXEL_dX;
    //int k,l;

    // debug data
    int** TBL00 = NULL;
    int** TBL01 = NULL;
    int** TBL02 = NULL;
    int** TBL03 = NULL;
    int** TBL04 = NULL;
    int** TBL05 = NULL;
    int** TBL06 = NULL;
    int** TBL07 = NULL;
    int** TBL08 = NULL;
    int** TBL09 = NULL;
    int** TBL10 = NULL;
    int** TBL11 = NULL;
    int** TBL12 = NULL;
    int** TBL13 = NULL;
    int** TBL14 = NULL;
    int** TBL15 = NULL;

    int** W00 = NULL;
    int** W01 = NULL;
    int** W02 = NULL;
    int** W03 = NULL;
    int** W04 = NULL;
    int** W05 = NULL;
    int** W06 = NULL;
    int** W07 = NULL;
    int** W08 = NULL;
    int** W09 = NULL;
    int** W10 = NULL;
    int** W11 = NULL;
    int** W12 = NULL;
    int** W13 = NULL;
    int** W14 = NULL;
    int** W15 = NULL;

    int** EXP_IN00 = NULL;
    int** EXP_IN01 = NULL;
    int** EXP_IN02 = NULL;
    int** EXP_IN03 = NULL;
    int** EXP_IN04 = NULL;
    int** EXP_IN05 = NULL;
    int** EXP_IN06 = NULL;
    int** EXP_IN07 = NULL;
    int** EXP_IN08 = NULL;
    int** EXP_IN09 = NULL;
    int** EXP_IN10 = NULL;
    int** EXP_IN11 = NULL;
    int** EXP_IN12 = NULL;
    int** EXP_IN13 = NULL;
    int** EXP_IN14 = NULL;
    int** EXP_IN15 = NULL;

    // allocate memory for storing debug data
    if (m_Debug)
        TBL00 = new int*[m_Height];
        TBL01 = new int*[m_Height];
        TBL02 = new int*[m_Height];
        TBL03 = new int*[m_Height];
        TBL04 = new int*[m_Height];
        TBL05 = new int*[m_Height];
        TBL06 = new int*[m_Height];
        TBL07 = new int*[m_Height];
        TBL08 = new int*[m_Height];
        TBL09 = new int*[m_Height];
        TBL10 = new int*[m_Height];
        TBL11 = new int*[m_Height];
        TBL12 = new int*[m_Height];
        TBL13 = new int*[m_Height];
        TBL14 = new int*[m_Height];
        TBL15 = new int*[m_Height];

        W00 = new int*[m_Height];
        W01 = new int*[m_Height];
        W02 = new int*[m_Height];
        W03 = new int*[m_Height];
        W04 = new int*[m_Height];
        W05 = new int*[m_Height];
        W06 = new int*[m_Height];
        W07 = new int*[m_Height];
        W08 = new int*[m_Height];
        W09 = new int*[m_Height];
        W10 = new int*[m_Height];
        W11 = new int*[m_Height];
        W12 = new int*[m_Height];
        W13 = new int*[m_Height];
        W14 = new int*[m_Height];
        W15 = new int*[m_Height];

        EXP_IN00 = new int*[m_Height];
        EXP_IN01 = new int*[m_Height];
        EXP_IN02 = new int*[m_Height];
        EXP_IN03 = new int*[m_Height];
        EXP_IN04 = new int*[m_Height];
        EXP_IN05 = new int*[m_Height];
        EXP_IN06 = new int*[m_Height];
        EXP_IN07 = new int*[m_Height];
        EXP_IN08 = new int*[m_Height];
        EXP_IN09 = new int*[m_Height];
        EXP_IN10 = new int*[m_Height];
        EXP_IN11 = new int*[m_Height];
        EXP_IN12 = new int*[m_Height];
        EXP_IN13 = new int*[m_Height];
        EXP_IN14 = new int*[m_Height];
        EXP_IN15 = new int*[m_Height];

        for (int i=0; i < m_Height; i++) 
              TBL00[i] = new int[m_Width];
              TBL01[i] = new int[m_Width];
              TBL02[i] = new int[m_Width];
              TBL03[i] = new int[m_Width];
              TBL04[i] = new int[m_Width];
              TBL05[i] = new int[m_Width];
              TBL06[i] = new int[m_Width];
              TBL07[i] = new int[m_Width];
              TBL08[i] = new int[m_Width];
              TBL09[i] = new int[m_Width];
              TBL10[i] = new int[m_Width];
              TBL11[i] = new int[m_Width];
              TBL12[i] = new int[m_Width];
              TBL13[i] = new int[m_Width];
              TBL14[i] = new int[m_Width];
              TBL15[i] = new int[m_Width];

              W00[i] = new int[m_Width];
              W01[i] = new int[m_Width];
              W02[i] = new int[m_Width];
              W03[i] = new int[m_Width];
              W04[i] = new int[m_Width];
              W05[i] = new int[m_Width];
              W06[i] = new int[m_Width];
              W07[i] = new int[m_Width];
              W08[i] = new int[m_Width];
              W09[i] = new int[m_Width];
              W10[i] = new int[m_Width];
              W11[i] = new int[m_Width];
              W12[i] = new int[m_Width];
              W13[i] = new int[m_Width];
              W14[i] = new int[m_Width];
              W15[i] = new int[m_Width];

              EXP_IN00[i] = new int[m_Width];
              EXP_IN01[i] = new int[m_Width];
              EXP_IN02[i] = new int[m_Width];
              EXP_IN03[i] = new int[m_Width];
              EXP_IN04[i] = new int[m_Width];
              EXP_IN05[i] = new int[m_Width];
              EXP_IN06[i] = new int[m_Width];
              EXP_IN07[i] = new int[m_Width];
              EXP_IN08[i] = new int[m_Width];
              EXP_IN09[i] = new int[m_Width];
              EXP_IN10[i] = new int[m_Width];
              EXP_IN11[i] = new int[m_Width];
              EXP_IN12[i] = new int[m_Width];
              EXP_IN13[i] = new int[m_Width];
              EXP_IN14[i] = new int[m_Width];
              EXP_IN15[i] = new int[m_Width];

    Ry = m_RyInitial;
    int row,col;

    #pragma omp parallel for schedule(static) default(none) \

    for(row = 0; row < m_Height; ++row)
        int nbr[Algo_NBR_SZ][Algo_NBR_SZ] ; // neighborhood
        int k,l;
        //int **ptrPtrNbrK  =   (int**)nbr;
        //int* ptrNbrK      =   0;
        Rx = m_RxInitial;
        for(col = 0; col < m_Width ; ++col)
            // prepare neighborhood
            /*k = 0;            
            for (int i=-i0;i<i1; ++i)
                l = 0;
                for (int j=-j0;j<j1; ++j)
                    if ((row+i)<0 || (row+i)>=m_Height ||(col+j)<0 || (col+j)>=m_Width)
                        nbr[k][l] = 0;
                    } else {
                        nbr[k][l] = m_Pin->m_R[row+i][col+j];
            // prepare neighborhood
            k = 0;  
            int* ptrNbrK = nbr[0];

            for (int i=-i0;i<i1; ++i)
                int row_plus_i = row+i;
                int* m_Pin_m_R_row_plus_i=m_Pin->m_R[row_plus_i];
                l = 0;
                for (int j=-j0;j<j1; ++j)
                    int col_plus_j = col+j;
                    if ((row_plus_i)<0 || (row_plus_i)>=m_Height ||(col_plus_j)<0 || (col_plus_j)>=m_Width)
                        //nbr[k][l] = 0;
                        ptrNbrK[l] =0;
                    } else {
                        ///nbr[k][l] = m_Pin->m_R[row_plus_i][col_plus_j];
                        ptrNbrK[l]= m_Pin_m_R_row_plus_i[col_plus_j];
                ptrNbrK = nbr[++k];


            shiftToRequiredPrecision(nbr, nbr_TBL_RES);
            computeTBLs(nbr_TBL_RES, TBL);
            calculatePatchStatistics(nbr_TBL_RES, meanP, meanPShift1, meanPShift2, meanPSubFlag, sigmaP, TBLShift1, TBLShift2, TBLSubFlag);
            eta = calculateDetailIndex(sigmaP, meanPShift1, meanPShift2, meanPSubFlag, ind);
            SettingSigmaN(eta, Rx, Ry, RxSqr, RySqr, etaShift1, etaShift2, etaSubFlag, rSqrShift1, rSqrShift2, rSqrSubFlag, rPwrShift1, rPwrShift2, rPwrSubFlag);

            for (int i=0; i<Algo_NUM_CANDIDATE; ++i)
                if (m_CandEnable[i])
                    expIn[i] = CalculateWeights(TBL[i], etaShift1, etaShift2, etaSubFlag, rSqrShift1, rSqrShift2, rSqrSubFlag,
                        TBLShift1, TBLShift2, TBLSubFlag, W[i], WShift1[i], WShift2[i], WSubFlag[i]);
                } else {
                    W[i]        = 0; 
                    WShift1[i]  = 0;
                    WShift2[i]  = 0;
                    WSubFlag[i] = 0;
                    expIn[i]    = 0;


            // adjust candidates group (B,C,D) weight values

            for (int i = Algo_FIRST_CANDIDATE_B; i<Algo_NUM_CANDIDATE_B+Algo_FIRST_CANDIDATE_B; ++i)
                W[i] = CommonFunctions::ShiftSubMultiplier(W[i], m_BCandSubFlag[ind], m_BCandShift1[ind], m_BCandShift2[ind]);  
            for (int i = Algo_FIRST_CANDIDATE_C; i<Algo_NUM_CANDIDATE_C+Algo_FIRST_CANDIDATE_C; ++i)
                W[i] = CommonFunctions::ShiftSubMultiplier(W[i], m_CCandSubFlag[ind], m_CCandShift1[ind], m_CCandShift2[ind]);  
            for (int i = Algo_FIRST_CANDIDATE_D; i<Algo_NUM_CANDIDATE_D+Algo_FIRST_CANDIDATE_D; ++i)
                W[i] = CommonFunctions::ShiftSubMultiplier(W[i], m_DCandSubFlag[ind], m_DCandShift1[ind], m_DCandShift2[ind]);  

            WSum = ComputingWeightSum(W);                   

            alpha0 = MatchQualityIndex(W, wMax, ind);
            PAvrg = ComputeAveragePixel(WShift1, WShift2, WSubFlag, nbr, WSum, ind);
            BlendingCoefficient(alpha0, alphaSubFlag, alphaShift1, alphaShift2, ind);

#if 0

            if ((row>226)&&(col>410))
                int p_in = m_Pin->m_R[row][col];

            Pout = m_Pin->m_R[row][col];
            dP = 0;
            if (WSum>m_wSumMinTh || wMax[0]>m_wMaxMinTh)            
                 Pout = SynthesizeOutputPixel(m_Pin->m_R[row][col], PAvrg, alphaSubFlag, alphaShift1, alphaShift2, rPwrSubFlag, rPwrShift1, rPwrShift2, dP );

            m_Pout      ->m_R[row][col] = Pout;
            m_PoutDiff  ->m_R[row][col] = m_Pin->m_R[row][col] - Pout;   
            //m_PoutDiff  ->m_R[row][col] = abs(m_Pin->m_R[row][col] - PAvrg); 
            m_PoutAlpha0->m_R[row][col] = alpha0;

            m_MapMeanP  ->m_R[row][col] = meanP;
            m_MapAlpha0 ->m_R[row][col] = alpha0;
            m_MapAlpha  ->m_R[row][col] = CommonFunctions::ShiftSubMultiplier((1<<Algo_NL_LUT_ARR_MAX_SHIFT), alphaSubFlag, alphaShift1, alphaShift2);
            m_MapSTD    ->m_R[row][col] = eta;
            m_MapInd    ->m_R[row][col] = ind;
            //m_MapInd    ->m_R[row][col] = rSqr;
            //m_MapInd    ->m_R[row][col] = dP;

            if (m_Debug)
                TBL00[row][col] = TBL[0];
                TBL01[row][col] = TBL[1];
                TBL02[row][col] = TBL[2];
                TBL03[row][col] = TBL[3];
                TBL04[row][col] = TBL[4];
                TBL05[row][col] = TBL[5];
                TBL06[row][col] = TBL[6];
                TBL07[row][col] = TBL[7];
                TBL08[row][col] = TBL[8];
                TBL09[row][col] = TBL[9];
                TBL10[row][col] = TBL[10];
                TBL11[row][col] = TBL[11];
                TBL12[row][col] = TBL[12];
                TBL13[row][col] = TBL[13];
                TBL14[row][col] = TBL[14];
                TBL15[row][col] = TBL[15];

                W00[row][col] = W[0];
                W01[row][col] = W[1];
                W02[row][col] = W[2];
                W03[row][col] = W[3];
                W04[row][col] = W[4];
                W05[row][col] = W[5];
                W06[row][col] = W[6];
                W07[row][col] = W[7];
                W08[row][col] = W[8];
                W09[row][col] = W[9];
                W10[row][col] = W[10];
                W11[row][col] = W[11];
                W12[row][col] = W[12];
                W13[row][col] = W[13];
                W14[row][col] = W[14];
                W15[row][col] = W[15];

                EXP_IN00[row][col] = expIn[0] ;
                EXP_IN01[row][col] = expIn[1] ;
                EXP_IN02[row][col] = expIn[2] ;
                EXP_IN03[row][col] = expIn[3] ;
                EXP_IN04[row][col] = expIn[4] ;
                EXP_IN05[row][col] = expIn[5] ;
                EXP_IN06[row][col] = expIn[6] ;
                EXP_IN07[row][col] = expIn[7] ;
                EXP_IN08[row][col] = expIn[8] ;
                EXP_IN09[row][col] = expIn[9] ;
                EXP_IN10[row][col] = expIn[10];
                EXP_IN11[row][col] = expIn[11];
                EXP_IN12[row][col] = expIn[12] ;
                EXP_IN13[row][col] = expIn[13] ;
                EXP_IN14[row][col] = expIn[14] ;
                EXP_IN15[row][col] = expIn[15] ;

    // write debug data to bin file
    if (m_Debug)
        writeDebugDataToBinFile("TBL", TBL00, TBL01, TBL02, TBL03, TBL04, TBL05, TBL06, TBL07, TBL08, TBL09, TBL10, TBL11, TBL12, TBL13, TBL14, TBL15);
        writeDebugDataToBinFile("W", W00, W01, W02, W03, W04, W05, W06, W07, W08, W09, W10, W11, W12, W13, W14, W15 );
        writeDebugDataToBinFile("EXP_IN", EXP_IN00, EXP_IN01, EXP_IN02, EXP_IN03, EXP_IN04, EXP_IN05, EXP_IN06, EXP_IN07, EXP_IN08, EXP_IN09, EXP_IN10, EXP_IN11,
            EXP_IN12, EXP_IN13, EXP_IN14, EXP_IN15);
    // free memory for debug data 
        for (int i=0; i < m_Height; i++) 
            delete TBL00[i];
            delete TBL01[i];
            delete TBL02[i];
            delete TBL03[i];
            delete TBL04[i];
            delete TBL05[i];
            delete TBL06[i];
            delete TBL07[i];
            delete TBL08[i];
            delete TBL09[i];
            delete TBL10[i];
            delete TBL11[i];
            delete TBL12[i];
            delete TBL13[i];
            delete TBL14[i];
            delete TBL15[i];

            delete W00[i];
            delete W01[i];
            delete W02[i];
            delete W03[i];
            delete W04[i];
            delete W05[i];
            delete W06[i];
            delete W07[i];
            delete W08[i];
            delete W09[i];
            delete W10[i];
            delete W11[i];
            delete W12[i];
            delete W13[i];
            delete W14[i];
            delete W15[i];

            delete EXP_IN00[i];
            delete EXP_IN01[i];
            delete EXP_IN02[i];
            delete EXP_IN03[i];
            delete EXP_IN04[i];
            delete EXP_IN05[i];
            delete EXP_IN06[i];
            delete EXP_IN07[i];
            delete EXP_IN08[i];
            delete EXP_IN09[i];
            delete EXP_IN10[i];
            delete EXP_IN11[i];
            delete EXP_IN12[i];
            delete EXP_IN13[i];
            delete EXP_IN14[i];
            delete EXP_IN15[i];

        delete TBL00;
        delete TBL01;
        delete TBL02;
        delete TBL03;
        delete TBL04;
        delete TBL05;
        delete TBL06;
        delete TBL07;
        delete TBL08;
        delete TBL09;
        delete TBL10;
        delete TBL11;
        delete TBL12;
        delete TBL13;
        delete TBL14;
        delete TBL15;

        delete W00;
        delete W01;
        delete W02;
        delete W03;
        delete W04;
        delete W05;
        delete W06;
        delete W07;
        delete W08;
        delete W09;
        delete W10;
        delete W11;
        delete W12;
        delete W13;
        delete W14;
        delete W15;

        delete EXP_IN00;
        delete EXP_IN01;
        delete EXP_IN02;
        delete EXP_IN03;
        delete EXP_IN04;
        delete EXP_IN05;
        delete EXP_IN06;
        delete EXP_IN07;
        delete EXP_IN08;
        delete EXP_IN09;
        delete EXP_IN10;
        delete EXP_IN11;
        delete EXP_IN12;
        delete EXP_IN13;
        delete EXP_IN14;
        delete EXP_IN15;


2 Answers 2


I would have placed this as a comment, but it's too long.

Here are some observations to make the code shorter and manageable:

I know the code is long but most of it is params init

The code is not only long, but also repetitive in some cases. These repetitions should be grouped by type and purpose (i.e. add some structures/classes to it, encapsulating data with the same purpose). That means, instead of having:

int** TBL00 = NULL;
int** TBL01 = NULL;
int** TBL15 = NULL;

You should probably have:

struct tables {
    typedef int** table;
    table   tables[16];

    tables(); // implement to allocate and initialize tables[0] .. tables[15]
    ~tables(); // implement to deallocate data

tables tbl; // use tbl.tables[0] to tbl.tables[15] instead

Also, check your use of allocations.

Example for EXP_IN00 (all appearances):

int** EXP_IN00 = NULL;
EXP_IN00 = new int*[m_Height];
for (int i=0; i < m_Height; i++) 
    EXP_IN00[i] = new int[m_Width];
EXP_IN00[row][col] = expIn[0] ;
for (int i=0; i < m_Height; i++) 
    delete EXP_IN00[i]; // invalid
delete EXP_IN00; // invalid

Because you are allocating arrays, you should use delete[] variable instead of delete variable. Otherwise, the results are undefined.

You should also place all arrays inside RAII wrappers. Then, you can get rid of all the deletes.

Edit: A few notes about the performance:

The performance of this function can be split in two parts: time taken by the allocations, and time taken by the computations.

For the allocations, if you can, consider using static allocation (where possible), extracting the data into common types where you can optimize the allocation separately (see my tables example above), and allocating the buffers separately, as members of CAlgo (I assume here that CAlgo is a class, not a namespace).

For the computations, I am not familiar with the API itself. You will have to measure each, pick the worst offender, and post the code, asking people for concrete advice on making it faster.


The code you wrote is quite nasty. These are some suggestions:

  • Do not use manual dynamic memory unless you really need it and you're skilled with: use smart pointers*. Performance impact is very small; considering their safety, they worth it, though.
    Remember always that new could throw a bad_alloc, which should be caught and eventually handled.
  • Do not use C-style arrays: std::vector is much better. You're using C++. Use STL. If you believe its overhead is too big, use std::array which is kind of faster than std::vector, but it has less features, since it's basically a safe wrapper for C-style arrays.
  • Do not use NULL: we have got nullptr*, which is way better than an integer.
  • Reduce variables number, you're using tons of them. (some are probably even useless).
  • Use std::thread*, which can even give you a native handler if you need to take over, always unless you need something only OpenMP can give you.

* Features available since C++11


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