I am writing a byte array value into a file, consisting of up to three of these arrays, using Java with big Endian byte order format. Now I need to read that file from a C++ program.

short employeeId = 32767;
long lastModifiedDate = "1379811105109L";
byte[] attributeValue = os.toByteArray();

I am writing employeeId, lastModifiedDate and attributeValue together into a single byte array. I am writing that resulting byte array into a file and then I will have my C++ program retrieve that byte array data from the file and then deserialize it to extract employeeId, lastModifiedDate and attributeValue from it.

This writes the byte array value into a file with big Endian format:

public class ByteBufferTest {

    public static void main(String[] args) {

        String text = "Byte Array Test For Big Endian";
        byte[] attributeValue = text.getBytes();

        long lastModifiedDate = 1289811105109L;
        short employeeId = 32767;

        int size = 2 + 8 + 4 + attributeValue.length; // short is 2 bytes, long 8 and int 4

        ByteBuffer bbuf = ByteBuffer.allocate(size); 



        // best approach is copy the internal buffer
        byte[] bytesToStore = new byte[size];



     * Write the file in Java
     * @param byteArray
    public static void writeFile(byte[] byteArray) {

            File file = new File("bytebuffertest");

            FileOutputStream output = new FileOutputStream(file);
            IOUtils.write(byteArray, output);           

        } catch (Exception ex) {

Now I need to retrieve the byte array from that same file using this C++ program and deserialize it to extract employeeId, lastModifiedDate and attributeValue from it. I am not sure what the best way is on the C++ side.

int main() {

    string line;

    std::ifstream myfile("bytebuffertest", std::ios::binary);

    if (myfile.is_open()) {

        uint16_t employeeId;
        uint64_t lastModifiedDate;
        uint32_t attributeLength;

        char buffer[8]; // sized for the biggest read we want to do

        // read two bytes (will be in the wrong order)
        myfile.read(buffer, 2);

        // swap the bytes
        std::swap(buffer[0], buffer[1]);

        // only now convert bytes to an integer
        employeeId = *reinterpret_cast<uint16_t*>(buffer);

        cout<< employeeId <<endl;

        // read eight bytes (will be in the wrong order)
        myfile.read(buffer, 8);

        // swap the bytes
        std::swap(buffer[0], buffer[7]);
        std::swap(buffer[1], buffer[6]);
        std::swap(buffer[2], buffer[5]);
        std::swap(buffer[3], buffer[4]);

        // only now convert bytes to an integer
        lastModifiedDate = *reinterpret_cast<uint64_t*>(buffer);

        cout<< lastModifiedDate <<endl;

        // read 4 bytes (will be in the wrong order)
        myfile.read(buffer, 4);

        // swap the bytes
        std::swap(buffer[0], buffer[3]);
        std::swap(buffer[1], buffer[2]);

        // only now convert bytes to an integer
        attributeLength = *reinterpret_cast<uint32_t*>(buffer);

        cout<< attributeLength <<endl;

        myfile.read(buffer, attributeLength);

        // now I am not sure how should I get the actual attribute value here?

        //close the stream:

        cout << "Unable to open file";

    return 0;

Can anybody take a look on C++ code and see what I can do to improve it, as I don't think it is looking much efficient? Any better way to deserialize the byte array and extract relevant information on the C++ side?


2 Answers 2


Obviously the code isn't portable to big-endian machines. I'll use C syntax, since I'm more familiar with that than C++.

If you have endian.h, you can use the functions in there; if not, you should have arpa/inet.h which defines functions for swapping network byte order (big-endian) to host byte order, but lacks a function for 64-bit values. Look for either be16toh (from endian.h) or ntohs (from arpa/inet.h) and friends.

Why not read directly into the values:

fread((void *)&employeeId, sizeof(employeeId), 1, file);
employeeId = be16toh(employeeId);

Since you can manipulate pointers in C, you just need to provide a universal pointer (void *) to the read function where it should place the results. The & operator takes the address of a value. Once that is done, you can manipulate the value directly, as above.

Using this Java test code:

import java.io.*;

public class write {
  public static void main(String... args) throws Exception {
    final FileOutputStream file = new FileOutputStream("java.dat");
    final DataOutputStream data = new DataOutputStream(file);

    final long time = System.currentTimeMillis();
    final short value = 32219;

    //  fill a table with a..z0..9
    final byte[] table = new byte[36];
    int index = 0;
    for (int i = 0; i < 26; i++) {
      table[index++] = (byte)(i + 'a');
    for (int i = 0 ; i < 10; i++) {
      table[index++] = (byte)(i + '0');


    System.out.format("wrote time: %d%n  value: %d%n  length: %d%n  table:%n", time, value, table.length);
    for (int i = 0; i < table.length; i++) {
      System.out.format("%c ", (char)table[i]);

The output from this code is:

wrote time: 1380743479723
  value: 32219
  length: 36
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 

You can read the values in with this C code:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <endian.h>
#include <sys/types.h>

int main(int argc, char **argv) {
  int64_t time;
  int16_t value;
  int32_t length;
  u_int8_t *array;

  FILE *in = fopen("java.dat", "rb");

  fread(&time, sizeof(time), 1, in);
  time = (int64_t)be64toh( (u_int64_t)time);

  fread(&value, sizeof(value), 1, in);
  value = (int16_t)be16toh( (u_int16_t)value );

  fread(&length, sizeof(length), 1, in);
  length = (int32_t)be32toh( (u_int32_t)length );

  array = (u_int8_t *)malloc(length);
  fread(array, sizeof(array[0]), length, in);


  printf("time: %ld\nvalue: %d\narray length: %d\narray:\n", time, value, length);
  for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
    printf("%c ", array[i]);

  return 0;

I compiled this on Ubuntu x64 with clang. Its output was:

time: 1380743479723
value: 32219
array length: 36
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 

Keep in mind that the only unsigned types in Java are byte (8 bits) and char (16-32 bits).

  • \$\begingroup\$ Thanks for suggestion.. The big problems is, I am not C++ developer, I am mainly a Java developer so that's why I am facing lot of problem.. By reading lot of stuff I was able to write that bunch of code in C++... Can you help me on this with a simple example basis on my code how can I deserialize on C++ side? \$\endgroup\$
    – arsenal
    Oct 2, 2013 at 6:25
  • \$\begingroup\$ Thanks for edit.. One quick question I have is- Does this c++ code work with my Java example in the way how it is writing into a file? \$\endgroup\$
    – arsenal
    Oct 2, 2013 at 21:24
  • \$\begingroup\$ You are writing a short, long, and int; I'm writing a long, short, int. So it's out of order. I just noticed you're specifying BIG_ENDIAN for your ByteBuffer. Can you not just use LITTLE_ENDIAN on output? \$\endgroup\$ Oct 2, 2013 at 21:34
  • \$\begingroup\$ I guess BIG ENDIAN is the preferred format for BYTE ORDER when we are dealing with cross platform issues? RIght? That's why I was following this.. Is there any way to use my c++ code to deserialize it properly? I am able to extract the attribute length but not sure how to read it back in my c++ code? \$\endgroup\$
    – arsenal
    Oct 2, 2013 at 21:41
  • \$\begingroup\$ To use C++, I think you have to use #include <new>, and allocate a big enough buffer with char *attribute = new char[length];. Then you can read the attribute array into attribute using read. Since it's allocated on the heap, when you're done with it you'll need to delete[] attribute;. \$\endgroup\$ Oct 3, 2013 at 0:38

I'm assuming that the reason for needing this is for some form of interoperability between a Java process/routine and a C++ process/routine. For the sake of having a more robust solution, have you considered using some form of serialization library to handle the byte array format for you?

For instance, Google's Protocol Buffer project is perfect for creating a single definition of your data model, and then creating bindings for different languages (Java and C++ supported) so that you can serialize/deserialize that object from any source.

Essentially you'd create an definition of the data you want to represent in a .proto file (like so):

message TouchInfo {
    required sint32 employee_number = 1;
    required int64 last_modified_date = 2;
    repeated sint32 attribute_value = 3 [packed=true];

The sint32 is signed variable length encoding integer and maps to int32 scalar in C++ and int primitive in Java. The int64 is a plain and simple int64 in C++ and long in Java. The last field accepts some slight overhead to simplify the code by encoding the field as an array. The option on the end configures the library to pack in the values as tightly as it can. This is for simplicity's sake, and if you require anything more granular than that, there is always the bytes type, which maps to string in C++ and ByteString in Java.

Finally, you'd use the protoc command to create C++ and Java libraries that will handle the serialization for you. protoc will generate the .h and .cpp files for the C++ bindings and a .java class with a special Builder object for Java.

The best part of this is that protobufs support plenty of helpful features to let you add or remove fields while maintaining a degree of backwards compatibility. Need to add a new field? Just recompile the bindings. The older versions of bindings will gracefully ignore any data fields they don't care about. Extensibility can be a big deal if the data has any chance of being modified in the future.

Google uses this as their "lingua franca" of data serialization tools, both for storing data and encoding RPC requests.

(My examples use protobuf v2, but they now have a v3)

  • \$\begingroup\$ Worth pointing out that uint32 isn't the same as int -- int32 is the same as int; uint32 is unsigned. At least, unless I missed something in the doc you linked, which is entirely possible. \$\endgroup\$
    – anon
    Dec 10, 2015 at 1:57
  • \$\begingroup\$ @QPaysTaxes - nice catch. I was just going off of the following bindings located at this link : developers.google.com/protocol-buffers/docs/proto#scalar. Answer is updated to use the sint32 bindings. \$\endgroup\$
    – C0M37
    Dec 10, 2015 at 2:06

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