Suppose I've got a JavaScript function that I'm treating like a class - that is, I want to make many instances of it:

function Blerg() {
  this._a = 5;

Blerg.prototype.getA = function() {
  return this._a;

Blerg.prototype.setA = function(val) {
  this._a = val;

This class has one attribute, a, which the constructor instantiates to a default value of 5. It is accessed with the getter and setter.

Now suppose I have such a class but it has 30+ attributes (a, b, c, etc), and suppose like a that these all have unique default values, but also that it is uncommon for them to be changed from the default.

Suppose also that I need to make 10,000 or more Blerg instances, and so a design goal is to save space.

I'm wondering if it is a good idea to put all of the default values for my 30+ attributes on the prototype of my class instead. That way, when I create 10,000+ instances of my class, none of them have a, b, c, etc attributes, but calling getA() will still return the correct default value.

So I present this modified Blerg function, Blerg2:

function Blerg2() {
  // nothing!

Blerg2.prototype._a = 5;

Blerg2.prototype.getA = function() {
  return this._a;

Blerg2.prototype.setA = function(val) {
  this._a = val;

Are there downsides to taking this approach?

Some notes

The prototype way seems faster to create, see: http://jsperf.com/blergs

For that matter, the worst-case scenario does not look that bad: http://jsperf.com/blergs/2

And creating many of them using the code in the jsperf test (in its own html page) and adding:

var a = [];
for (var i = 0; i < 400000; i++) {
  a.push(new Blerg()); // or Blerg2

Suggests that the heap size for the objects in question is cut in half by using Blerg2.


1 Answer 1


related jsperf http://jsperf.com/12312412354

Well this is a really bad idea. Objects are always considered having different class if they don't have exactly the same set of properties in the same order. So a function that accepts these objects will in best case be polymorphic and in worst case megamorphic all the while you are thinking you are passing it same class of objects. This is fundamental to all JS engines although the specifics that follow focus on V8.


function monomorphic( a ) {
    return a.prop + a.prop;

var obj = {prop: 3};
while( true ) {
    monomorphic( obj );

Now, since the passed object a always has the same class, we will get really good code:

    ; load from stack to eax
15633697    23  8b4508         mov eax,[ebp+0x8] 
    ;; test that `a` is an object and not a small integer
1563369A    26  f7c001000000   test eax,0x1 
156336A0    32  0f8485000000   jz 171  (1563372B) ;;deoptimize if it is not
    ;; test that `a`'s class is as expected
156336A6    38  8178ffb9f7902f cmp [eax+0xff],0x2f90f7b9
156336AD    45  0f857d000000   jnz 176  (15633730) ;;deoptimize if it is not
    ;; load a.prop into ecx, as you can see it's like doing struct->field in C
156336B3    51  8b480b         mov ecx,[eax+0xb]
    ;; this will untag the tagged pointer so that integer arithmetic can be done to it
156336B6    54  d1f9           sar ecx,1
    ;; perform a.prop + a.prop
    ;; note that if it was a.prop + a.prop2
    ;; then it wouldn't need to do all those checks again
    ;; so for one time check inside the function we can load all the properties
    ;; quickly
156336B8    56  03c9           add ecx,ecx

Notice what happened here, V8 saw that we always pass the same class of object to the function monomoprhic and generated really tight code that assumes we will always get that class of object in the future as well.

Now let's do:

function polymorphic( a ) {
    return a.prop + a.prop;

var obj = {prop: 3};
var obj2 = {prop: 3, prop2: 4};
while( true ) {
    polymorphic( Math.random() < 0.5 ? obj : obj2 );

Now the function must consider 2 different classes of objects. The classes are different but similar enough that the client code can stay as it is as both classes contain a field prop.

Let's see:

    ; load from stack to eax
04C33E17    23  8b4508         mov eax,[ebp+0x8]
    ;; test that `a` is an object and not a small integer
04C33E1A    26  f7c001000000   test eax,0x1
04C33E20    32  0f8492000000   jz 184  (04C33EB8) ;; deoptimize if not
    ;; test that `a`'s class is one of the expected classes
04C33E26    38  8178ffb9f7401c cmp [eax+0xff],0x1c40f7b9
04C33E2D    45  0f840d000000   jz 64  (04C33E40) ;; if it is, skip the second check and go to the addition code
    ;; otherwise check that `a`'s class is the second one of the expected classes
04C33E33    51  8178ff31f8401c cmp [eax+0xff],0x1c40f831
04C33E3A    58  0f857d000000   jnz 189  (04C33EBD) ;; deoptimize if not
    ;; load a.prop into ecx
    ;; if you are still reading this you will probably notice that this
    ;; is actually relying on the fact that both classes declared the prop field
    ;; first
04C33E40    64  8b480b         mov ecx,[eax+0xb]
    ;; this will untag the tagged pointer so that integer arithmetic can be done to it
04C33E43    67  d1f9           sar ecx,1
    ;; do the addition
04C33E45    69  03c9           add ecx,ecx

Ok so the situation is still pretty good but here we are relying on the fact that properties are in same order and that there are only 2 different classes.

Let's do the same in different order so that V8 can't use the same instruction (mov ecx,[eax+0xb]) for both objects:

function polymorphic( a ) {
    return a.prop + a.prop;

var obj = {prop: 3};
var obj2 = {prop2: 4, prop: 3};
while( true ) {
    polymorphic( Math.random() < 0.5 ? obj : obj2 );


06C33E84    36  8b4508         mov eax,[ebp+0x8]
    ;; small integer check
06C33E87    39  f7c001000000   test eax,0x1
06C33E8D    45  0f84d3000000   jz 262  (06C33F66)
    ;; class check 1
06C33E93    51  8178ffb9f75037 cmp [eax+0xff],0x3750f7b9
06C33E9A    58  7505           jnz 65  (06C33EA1)
06C33E9C    60  8b480b         mov ecx,[eax+0xb]
06C33E9F    63  eb10           jmp 81  (06C33EB1)
    ;; class check 2
06C33EA1    65  8178ff31f85037 cmp [eax+0xff],0x3750f831
06C33EA8    72  0f85bd000000   jnz 267  (06C33F6B)
06C33EAE    78  8b480f         mov ecx,[eax+0xf]

06C33EB1    81  f6c101         test_b cl,0x1
06C33EB4    84  0f851e000000   jnz 120  (06C33ED8)
06C33EBA    90  d1f9           sar ecx,1
06C33EBC    92  89ca           mov edx,ecx
06C33EBE    94  03d1           add edx,ecx

Ok just as expected, just using different offsets depending on the class.

So you can see where this is going, if you end up with 10 different classes then you will just get 30 instructions (instead of 3) whenever a function will need to lookup a property. Which is still much better than a hash table (100s of instructions?) lookup.

Well no, turns out there is a limit of 4 different classes and then you go into megamorphic mode.

So with this, we should see radically different code output if we use 5 or more different classes:

function megamorphic( a ) {
    return a.prop + a.prop;

var objs = [
    {prop: 3},
    {prop3: 4, prop: 3, prop2: 4},
    {prop4: 4, prop2: 4, prop: 3, prop5: 6},
    {prop: 3, prop12: 6},
    {prop7: 15, prop30: 12, prop314: 4, prop34: 15, prop: 3}

while( true ) {
    var index = Math.random() * objs.length | 0;
    megamorphic( objs[index] );


3D3342E7    39  8b5508         mov edx,[ebp+0x8]
3D3342EA    42  b9f5e2a115     mov ecx,15A1E2F5
3D3342EF    47  e84c6ffeff     call LoadIC_Initialize  (3D31B240)
3D3342F4    52  8945ec         mov [ebp+0xec],eax
3D3342F7    55  8b75f0         mov esi,[ebp+0xf0]
3D3342FA    58  8b5508         mov edx,[ebp+0x8]
3D3342FD    61  b9f5e2a115     mov ecx,15A1E2F5
3D334302    66  e8396ffeff     call LoadIC_Initialize  (3D31B240)
3D334307    71  8b4dec         mov ecx,[ebp+0xec]
3D33430A    74  f6c101         test_b cl,0x1
3D33430D    77  0f8527000000   jnz 122  (3D33433A)
3D334313    83  d1f9           sar ecx,1
3D334315    85  89c2           mov edx,eax
3D334317    87  f6c201         test_b dl,0x1
3D33431A    90  0f8546000000   jnz 166  (3D334366)
3D334320    96  d1fa           sar edx,1
3D334322    98  03d1           add edx,ecx

That actually looks a lot like code that loads properties from objects that are in hash table mode. Is it fast? Unfortunately jsperf is down now so you have to run it yourself with code here:

Megamorphic 492
Monomorphic 30

So the same function body ran 15 times faster because the object passed to it always had the same class. It is also hard to predict if you will actually save memory if all those 10000 objects allocate a different class for instance.

It is also complicated to really look at all the downsides but having optional properties is one of those things that it is easy to say is very bad.

  • 3
    \$\begingroup\$ +1. A more memory oriented estimation would have been good too but this is already very interesting. \$\endgroup\$ Commented Jul 11, 2013 at 14:16
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ @SimonSarris I left for a vacation after posting this and didn't have Internet access so I saw all your chat pings only now :P \$\endgroup\$
    – Esailija
    Commented Jul 15, 2013 at 11:22
  • \$\begingroup\$ Not sure I understand this. Why does putting default values on a prototype causes the instances to have a different set of properties? It seems to me they all have the same properties (i.e., those defined on the on the prototype). Or am I missing something? \$\endgroup\$
    – Norswap
    Commented Nov 20, 2014 at 12:46
  • \$\begingroup\$ Oh @Norswap I think I understand. In the default case, where none of the default properties were overridden, I think the generated code would be efficient. But as soon as you override a default, that new property will be at a different offset. If many objects override the default, the new properties could be at a different offset for each object, therefore generating the horrible megamorphic code. It seems like in the case where more than ~4 objects plan to override defaults, it would be better to place those properties on the object instead of the prototype, so they are at the same offset. \$\endgroup\$
    – Marius
    Commented Jun 23, 2015 at 23:06

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