This is an x86-64 Linux program to print a non-negative decimal integer. I would appreciate any simple optimizations for size and readability. I am aware that division by a constant is usually done by multiplication by the magic constant reciprocal, but I used div here for simplicity.

; nasm -f elf64 print_dec.asm && ld print_dec.o -o print_dec
global _start

section .text

; print non-negative decimal integer in rdi
    push    rbp         ; callee-saved 
    mov     rbp, rsp    ; save sp

    mov     rcx, 10     ; divisor base
    mov     rax, rdi    ; dividend from arg0
    xor     rdx, rdx    ; zero upper dividend
    div     rcx         ; unsigned divide rdx:rax by rcx
                        ; rax := quotient, rdx := remainder
    add     rdx, '0'    ; convert digit to ASCII
    push    rdx         ; push remainder digit
    cmp     rax, 0       
    jne     L1          ; do while (rax != 0)

    mov     rax, 1      ; call number for write
    mov     rdi, 1      ; write to stdout (fd=1)
    mov     rsi, rsp    ; use char on stack
    mov     rdx, 1      ; write 1 char
    add     rsp, 8      ; "pop" stack 
    cmp     rbp, rsp    ; do while (stack still has digits)
    jne     L2 

    pop     rbp

    mov     rdi, 1234   ; int to print
    call    print_dec

    mov     eax, 60     ; exit call number
    xor     rdi, rdi    ; exit code 0

Before I wrote the code, I wrote my simple stack-based algorithm (pretty much the only way I think you could write it) in C first and cheated a bit by looking at the godbolt output. But I don't know how to force the compiler to use push and pop as I did because it just does indirect addressing like mov QWORD PTR [rsp+8+rbx*8], rdx. So the "stack" is implemented in C and not the x86 stack. If there is a way to, please let me know.

// print non-negative integer in decimal
#include <stdio.h>

typedef unsigned long long ull;

void print_dec(ull x)

    ull stack[20];

    ull sp = 0; // not actual x86 sp
    ull bp = sp;
    ull d;

    do // run at least once to print 0
        d = x % 10; 
        stack[sp++] = d + '0'; // push
        x /= 10;
    } while (x);

        d = stack[--sp]; // pop
        putc(d, stdout);
    } while (sp != bp);

int main() 

2 Answers 2


That stack on the stack is (ironically?) an unusual technique, but OK.

Various 64-bit instructions can be replaced with an equivalent 32-bit instruction, which typically makes them smaller.

  • mov rcx, 10 can be mov ecx, 10
  • xor rdx, rdx can be xor edx, edx
  • In this context, add rdx, '0' can be add edx, '0', since rdx always has a small value here
  • mov rax, 1 can be mov eax, 1 etc

For mov rcx, 10 and similar instructions, that saves 2 bytes each (the REX prefix, but also using a different opcode that doesn't need a Mod/RM byte). The other instructions just lose their REX prefix and become 1 byte smaller.

Comparison to zero can be simplified:

cmp     rax, 0       
jne     L1

Can be:

test    rax, rax     
jne     L1

That only saves one byte.

Before the syscall that writes the byte, there are 3 separate loads of the value 1, two of them can be replaced with a mov between registers, making them 3 bytes smaller each. These days that probably doesn't cost more time either, although that wouldn't have been relevant relative to the huge cost of a syscall anyway.

  • \$\begingroup\$ Thanks. I'm curious why the compiler will use a local array on the stack but not push/pop. \$\endgroup\$
    – qwr
    Feb 10 at 21:03
  • \$\begingroup\$ @qwr compilers have never done that kind of locally-unbalanced stack manipulation[citation needed] but it makes even less sense now since with the SysV AMD64 ABI it is almost always an ABI violation to do it (and it definitely requires a frame pointer which is typically avoided). You can get away with it here, probably. \$\endgroup\$
    – harold
    Feb 10 at 21:24

I would appreciate any simple optimizations for size and readability.

Memory reduction

Rather than ull stack[20];, only a byte array is needed.

Avoid UB

The magic number 20 is insufficient when ull/unsigned long long is more than 64-bits. C only requires that type to be at least 64-bit.

An alternative is to scale stack[] size by the bit-width of ull.

// Size to encode an unsigned type as a "decimal" string: value_bit_with*log2(10) + 1
#define LOG2_10_N  28
#define LOG2_10_D  93
#define ULL_DECIMAL_TEXT_SIZE (sizeof(ull)*CHAR_BIT*LOG2_10_N/LOG2_10_D + 1)

One output call

Rather than form the digits forwards in stack[], save them starting from the end of stack[] and then print once.

unsigned char stack[ULL_DECIMAL_TEXT_SIZE + 1];  // +1 for a string
unsigned sp = ULL_DECIMAL_TEXT_SIZE;

do {
    stack[--sp] = (int)(x % 10) + '0'; // push
    x /= 10;
} while (x);

fputs(stack + sp, stdout);
  • \$\begingroup\$ You are right about me assuming long long would only be 64 bit, which I can document. I don't know if the fputs call would work in assembly unless there was a way to push just bytes onto the x86 stack? I like the symmetry of push/pop anyhow. \$\endgroup\$
    – qwr
    Feb 14 at 19:55
  • \$\begingroup\$ @qwr Rather than document assuming long long would only be 64 bit, use typedef uint64_t ull; instead of unsigned long long (or adjust stack[] as answered). \$\endgroup\$ Feb 14 at 20:40

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