# Numpy segmented Sieve Of Eratosthenes

For the segmented Sieve Of Eratosthenes, I have devised the following code provided. And I understand that it is not the best implementation; However, it should be much quicker than what it is now. The c Profile provides numerous results. However, it only defines built-in methods and gives no further context as to which built-in method is taking up the most time. I wish to optimize this sieve to the maximum possible performance capable through python.

Which numpy built-in method is making my program slower?

import numpy as np
import math
import cProfile
def generateprimes(n: int = 0) -> list:#simple sieve of Eratosthenes to find primes that make up
#all factors of the upper bound.
Primelist = np.full((1,int(math.sqrt(n) )),1, dtype='int8')
Primelist[0,0], Primelist[0,1] = 0,0
for i in range(2,int(math.sqrt(math.sqrt(n))) + 1):
if Primelist[0,i] == 1:
for x in range (i*i,int(math.sqrt(n) ),i):
Primelist[0,x] = 0
indices = np.where(Primelist == 1)
return indices
#unique, counts = np.unique(Primelist, return_counts=True)
#dict(zip(unique, counts))
#return [b for b in range(int(math.sqrt(n))) if Primelist[0,b] == 1]
def SegmentedSieve(R: int, L:int, Primes: tuple) -> tuple:
Finalprime = np.empty((0,1), dtype = 'int32')
limit = (R//L) # Total amount of segments
Finalprime = np.append(Finalprime, Primes)
for x in range(1, limit):
Low = (L * x)
High = Low + L
Segment = np.full((1,High-Low),1,dtype='int8') #creates a segment that is the size of the differences between L and R
NewPrimes = np.extract(Primes <= int(math.sqrt(High)),Primes) # Only taking the primes that are less than the square root of the upperbound.
#i.e the limit of the current segment
for p in NewPrimes:
s = ((int(math.ceil(Low / p))) * p) % Low # Finds the position of the first occurrence of the prime in the
# newest lowest bound or Low
for i in range(s,L,p): # starts at the position found and skips every p distance. The upperbound is the
#amount of elements in each segment.
Segment[0, i] = 0
indices = np.where(Segment == 1) + Low
Finalprime = np.append(Finalprime, indices)
continue
return Finalprime

def main():
R = (10 ** 7)
L = int(math.sqrt(R))
SegmentedSieve(R, L, generateprimes(R))

if __name__ == '__main__':
cProfile.run('main()') # Performance

## numpy.append

The first thing I noticed is the numpy.append method with a cumulative time of 1.131s. For each of the 3162 times it is called a new array is created and the content of the existing array is copied. This can be improved by using a (builtin) list instead of a numpy array. Appending to a list is less expensive because lists are specifically designed to be appended to.

In order to still return a numpy array, the list of arrays Finalprime has to be converted to an array using the numpy.hstack method.

This change reduced the total runtime from 4.5s to 2.8s.

## Python for loop

Next I used the line based profile "Scalene" to find out which code lines use up a lot of time.

This lead me to the following loop:

for i in range(s,L,p): # starts at the position found and skips every p distance. The upperbound is the
#amount of elements in each segment.
Segment[0, i] = 0


All this loop does setting every pth element to zero. The same can be achieved using the arguments of the range function as a numpy slice instead:

Segment[0, s:L:p] = 0


This improvement further reduced the runtime from 2.8s to 1.0s

# General

There are a number things that are not performance related but are a bit odd:

• the continue keyword at the end of the main loop of SegmentedSieve is executed every time at the end of the loop and is therefor useless.
• functions and variables should be named using lower_snake_case instead of PascalCase
• after a comma there should usually be a space
• before and after a top level definition there should be two blank lines
• Some of the type annotations are incorrect. generateprimes does not return a list but a numpy array. The Primes argument of the SegmentedSieve method is not a tuple but a numpy array. The same is true for the return value of said method.
• You are using 2D arrays for Segment and Primelist but the first dimension of these arrays has size 1 and it is never really used. This can be simplified to 1D arrays.

# Changed Code

This is the code with the performance and general suggestions applied to it:

import numpy as np
from numpy.typing import NDArray
import math
import cProfile

def generateprimes(n: int = 0) -> NDArray[np.intp]:
"""
simple sieve of Eratosthenes to find primes that make up
all factors of the upper bound.
"""
upper_bound = int(math.sqrt(n))

primes = np.full(upper_bound, 1, dtype=np.int8)
primes, primes = 0, 0

for i in range(2, int(math.sqrt(math.sqrt(n))) + 1):
if primes[i] == 1:
for x in range(i**2, upper_bound, i):
primes[x] = 0

indices = np.where(primes == 1)
return indices

def segmented_sieve(r: int, l: int, primes: NDArray[np.intp]) -> NDArray[np.intp]:
finalprime = []
limit = r // l  # Total amount of segments
finalprime.append(primes)

for x in range(1, limit):
low = l * x
high = low + l

# creates a segment that is the size of the differences between L and R
segment = np.full(high - low, 1, dtype=np.int8)

# Only taking the primes that are less than the square root of the upperbound.
# i.e the limit of the current segment
new_primes = np.extract(primes <= int(math.sqrt(high)), primes)

for p in new_primes:
# Finds the position of the first occurrence of the prime in the
# newest lowest bound or Low
s = (math.ceil(low / p) * p) % low

# starts at the position found and skips every p distance. The upperbound is the
# amount of elements in each segment.
segment[s:l:p] = 0

indices = np.where(segment == 1) + low
finalprime.append(indices)

return np.hstack(finalprime)

def main():
r = 10**7
l = int(math.sqrt(r))
segmented_sieve(r, l, generateprimes(r))

if __name__ == "__main__":
cProfile.run("main()")