I'm pretty sure the script below can be refactored but I'm not sure how to go about it. Assuming I need to make use of inheritances but that's a skill I'm still working on. Any thoughts on how this script can be improved would be greatly appreciated. This is just a snippet of my project - the end goal is to retrieve data from multiple external API's, process/clean the data and export individual datasets to tables via mysqlalchemy.

import pandas as pd

import download

def parse_to_list(dic,k):
    Function parse_to_list takes a dictionary and nested key to return
    portion of dictionary.
    lst = []
    for x in dic['events']:
        if x['type'] == 'MATCH':
            for y in x['markets']:
                if k in y['displayName']:

    return lst

def gamelist_parse(dic):
    event_id = dic['eventId']
    away_team = dic['selections'][0]['teamData']['teamAbbreviation']
    home_team = dic['selections'][1]['teamData']['teamAbbreviation']
    game_ref = f'{away_team}@{home_team}'
    return [(event_id,game_ref)]

def runline_parse(dic):
    event_id = dic['eventId']
    away_team = dic['selections'][0]['teamData']['teamAbbreviation']
    away_price = dic['selections'][0]['price']['a']
    home_team = dic['selections'][1]['teamData']['teamAbbreviation']
    home_price = dic['selections'][1]['price']['a']
    away_line = dic['line'] if away_price > home_price else dic['line'] * -1
    home_line = dic['line'] if away_price < home_price else dic['line'] * -1
    return [(away_team,event_id,away_price,away_line),(home_team,event_id,home_price,home_line)]

class Gamelist:
    display_name = 'Money Line'
    df_cols = ['event_id','game_ref']
    df_idx = 'event_id'
    parser = gamelist_parse

class Runline:
    display_name = 'Run Line'
    df_cols = ['team','event_id','price','line']
    df_idx = 'team'
    parser = runline_parse

class Parser:
    def __init__(self,dic,clsdata):
        self._dic = dic
        self._clsdata = clsdata

        self.df = self.to_df()

    def to_list(self):       
        self.data = parse_to_list(self._dic,self._clsdata.display_name)

    def parse(self):
        self.data = [self._clsdata.parser(x) for x in self.data]
        self.data = [item for sublist in self.data for item in sublist]

    def to_df(self):
        return pd.DataFrame(self.data,columns=self._clsdata.df_cols).set_index(self._clsdata.df_idx)
games_dic = download.GamesDict('Baseball','MLB').main() #returns dictionary of data
gamelist = Parser(games_dic,Gamelist).df
runline = Parser(games_dic,Runline).df

1 Answer 1


Don't name variables x, y and k where more descriptive names are possible.

This exception-handling:


first, shouldn't exist; but also will never actually catch any exceptions; there's nothing to fail here.

Add PEP484 type hints.

This code:

away_team = dic['selections'][0]['teamData']['teamAbbreviation']
home_team = dic['selections'][1]['teamData']['teamAbbreviation']

doesn't seem like it's going to succeed, because there are many rows for which there are no teamData dictionaries.


away_line = dic['line'] if away_price > home_price else dic['line'] * -1
home_line = dic['line'] if away_price < home_price else dic['line'] * -1

can just negate -line rather than multiplying. Also, does this really do what you want in the case where the home and away prices are equal to each other? Can you assume that the home line is always the negative away line?

You may benefit from making Parser as an abstract parent of Gamelist and Runline, and varying the record generation by basic polymorphism.

You've omitted a section of your data processing, where you need to iterate over sports etc.


from typing import Any, Iterator, Iterable

import pandas as pd
import requests

def get_data() -> list[dict[str, Any]]:
    with requests.get(
        params={'promotedOnly': 'false'},
        headers={'Accept': 'application/json'},
    ) as resp:
        return resp.json()

def get_match_markets(dic: list[dict[str, Any]]) -> Iterator[dict[str, Any]]:
    for sport in dic:
        for competition in sport.get('competitions', ()):
            for event in competition.get('events', ()):
                if event.get('type') == 'MATCH':
                    yield from event.get('markets', ())

class Parser:
    DF_COLS: tuple[str]
    DF_IDX: str

    def to_df(self, markets: Iterable[dict[str, Any]]) -> pd.DataFrame:
        df = pd.DataFrame.from_records(
            self._get_records(markets), columns=self.DF_COLS, index=self.DF_IDX,
        return df

    def _get_records(cls, markets: Iterable[dict[str, Any]]) -> Iterator[tuple]:
        for market in markets:
            if market['displayName'] == cls.DISPLAY_NAME:
                yield from cls._get_data(market)

    def _get_data(cls, market: dict[str, Any]) -> tuple:
        raise NotImplementedError()

class Gamelist(Parser):
    DISPLAY_NAME = 'Money Line'
    DF_IDX = 'event_id'
    DF_COLS = (DF_IDX, 'game_ref')

    def team_abbrev(team: dict) -> str:
        return team.get('teamData', {}).get('teamAbbreviation', '')

    def _get_data(cls, market: dict[str, Any]) -> tuple[tuple, ...]:
        event_id = market['eventId']
        away_team, home_team = market['selections'][:2]
        game_ref = (
        return (event_id, game_ref),

class Runline(Parser):
    DISPLAY_NAME = 'Run Line'
    DF_IDX = 'team'
    DF_COLS = (DF_IDX, 'event_id', 'price', 'line')

    def _get_data(cls, market: dict[str, Any]) -> tuple[tuple, ...]:
        event_id = market['eventId']
        away_team, home_team = market['selections'][:2]
        away_abbrev = away_team['teamData']['teamAbbreviation']
        home_abbrev = home_team['teamData']['teamAbbreviation']

        away_price = away_team['price']['a']
        home_price = home_team['price']['a']
        line = market['line']
        away_line = line if away_price > home_price else -line
        return (
            (away_abbrev, event_id, away_price,  away_line),
            (home_abbrev, event_id, home_price, -away_line),

def main() -> None:
    games_dic = get_data()
    markets = tuple(get_match_markets(games_dic))

if __name__ == '__main__':


ffb909b1-647e-4e55-8418-08185b91d110    CHC@STL
d4422840-d074-4285-ab8b-0e9a7efe50f4     LAD@SF
582f0d9b-68db-4c00-9cd5-a67b5e158b59     COL@SD
fb5729e1-7c18-4677-bc8e-2945138363ac    OAK@LAA
64ad7ff0-c332-40ff-8b94-1ddbfd49cdbf     LV@JAX
1e5e5964-a63b-4caf-9654-48535d9a61eb     LV@JAX
a52257b5-ab62-4f82-bc7d-348dfc85f3e4          @
c2d17d0e-001f-4ef1-b560-6446830d91ee    BUF@LAR
d3df8dc1-fc2b-48c6-9ce9-27175f0eaf5b     SF@CHI
9e39445d-7c97-48c0-b976-331fdc0ad14c    PHI@DET
22906ec4-07fc-4555-a0a7-fbdf0b72bb2a    BAL@NYJ
cd54c138-261c-4995-8593-3dfd8b292b81  false@ATL
80df769c-227b-4d6e-95b0-0cd8063e1aa7     NE@MIA
dbe5a92b-b3d6-4540-97c5-df467df706f4    CLE@CAR
8cee45a2-8213-4897-a77e-c80f2b633346    PIT@CIN
273c7880-67ee-499f-acd7-9f3bccb96637    JAX@WAS
67653008-cb76-4276-affc-185c630f0ad4    IND@HOU
f41715b2-79e6-48bf-b950-a39294437a81     KC@ARZ
5d5e9a33-80b4-4172-9731-0022763d4d81     GB@MIN
48a31fb4-1f85-4867-9ebe-b1e7970e8080     LV@LAC
35fcb682-9e61-4066-b9b5-a834161336bc    NYG@TEN
bab85113-360f-4fc4-9ff4-6df0fbc8b9e1     TB@DAL
9112dd1b-4e4f-4790-823e-8ae354ff34da    DEN@SEA
7d0709c4-b547-4fa0-95a0-274513a7ee2a          @
c878f903-533a-48dd-a60d-74bcc4fc1c54          @
3f54141a-fdf2-40a1-b6f1-c551f35c560e          @
1b478545-1c07-4bf2-a411-da11fab5c024          @
                                  event_id  price  line
CHC   ffb909b1-647e-4e55-8418-08185b91d110   -130   1.5
STL   ffb909b1-647e-4e55-8418-08185b91d110    110  -1.5
LAD   d4422840-d074-4285-ab8b-0e9a7efe50f4    105   1.5
SF    d4422840-d074-4285-ab8b-0e9a7efe50f4   -125  -1.5
COL   582f0d9b-68db-4c00-9cd5-a67b5e158b59    122  -1.5
SD    582f0d9b-68db-4c00-9cd5-a67b5e158b59   -145   1.5
OAK   fb5729e1-7c18-4677-bc8e-2945138363ac   -110   1.5
LAA   fb5729e1-7c18-4677-bc8e-2945138363ac   -110  -1.5
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Thank you so much! This definitely gives me better direction. On first run the code did break on KeyError: 'teamData' (as you spoke about) so my first step is going to be diagnosing that. \$\endgroup\$
    – Nick
    Commented Aug 4, 2022 at 3:12
  • \$\begingroup\$ Not much diagnosis needed - the workaround I have shown should suffice. \$\endgroup\$
    – Reinderien
    Commented Aug 4, 2022 at 15:15
  • \$\begingroup\$ I actually forgot to mention that I only want to pull data for specific sports leagues at a time. What I did was create GamesDict class that returns the dict filtered for sport/league. \$\endgroup\$
    – Nick
    Commented Aug 5, 2022 at 9:27
  • \$\begingroup\$ I actually ran into another problem. I realized I need the startTime that's in events. I'm assuming I can make a few changes to parse through events (for Gamelist) and then markets (for everything else)? \$\endgroup\$
    – Nick
    Commented Aug 5, 2022 at 11:33
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Nick you'd need to modify get_match_markets, where event is iterated. \$\endgroup\$
    – Reinderien
    Commented Aug 8, 2022 at 21:06

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