# Printing subarrays ⚡

I was trying to to print all subarrays of an array in quadratic time. Here is my code:

#include <iostream>
#include <vector>

int main()
{
std::vector<int> v;
int N;
std::cin >> N; //size of array

for (int i = 0; i < N; i++) {
int x;
std::cin >> x;
v.push_back(x);
}

int j = v.size() - 1;
std::vector<int> l;

do {
l.push_back(v[j]);

if (j == 0) {
int k = l.size() - 1;

do {
std::cout << l[k] << " ";

if (k == 0) {
l.pop_back();

if (l.empty()) {
break;
}

std::cout << '\n';
k = l.size() - 1;
} else {
k--;
}
} while (k >= 0);

v.pop_back();

if (v.empty()) {
std::cout << '\n';
break;
}

std::cout << '\n';
j = v.size() - 1;
} else {
j--;
}
} while (j >= 0);
}


What is the time complexity of this code? Is it more efficient than O(n^3)?

• For what you need v if you already have a? Jun 9, 2022 at 20:14
• This method of printing subarrays is little faster than the general method to print subarrays using three nested loops. Jun 10, 2022 at 8:32
• I was asking about why you need 2 vectors v and a? They are both exactly the same, or have I mised some? Jun 10, 2022 at 10:14
• I had edited my code according to your comment. Can you tell what is the time complexity of my code? Jun 10, 2022 at 11:34
• Any restrictions on subarrays? Like contiguity? Jun 10, 2022 at 12:51

The code you have written looks very obfuscated. For example, the outer do-loop does two things: it copies elements from v to l (in reverse order), and when it finished doing that, the next iteration will start the inner loop that prints a subarray (reversing it again), and then it resets j so the outer loop will start from scratch with a v that has one less element. The loop indices also go backwards. All variable names are only a single letter long. This makes the code very hard to read, not just for others but also for yourself in the future.

Use variable names that clearly indicate what the variable is used for. They don't have to be overly long; concise names are preferred over verbose ones. Only use one-letter names for very common things, like i for a loop index, x/y/z for coordinates, or n for a count of things.

Rewrite the loops so it becomes much more clear what is going on. Make use of the fact that you can copy whole std::vectors in one go, and create helper functions where appropriate. So for example:

static void print(const std::vector<int>& array) {
for (auto& item: array) {
std::cout << item << ' ';
}

std::cout << '\n';
}
...
std::vector<int> array;
...
while (!array.empty()) {
auto subarray = array;

while (!subarray.empty()) {
print(subarray);
subarray.erase(subarray.begin()); // pop_front()
}

array.pop_back();
}


# Efficiency

Is it more efficient than O(n^3)?

Not unless it has a bug. If you print out all the possible contiguous subarrays of a given array of length $$\N\$$, you are printing in the order of $$\O(N^3)\$$ elements. The question is then: is it less efficient than $$\O(N^3)\$$? This means looking carefully at hidden costs from manipulating the std::vectors, as not all operations on them are $$\O(1)\$$. There is in fact a $$\O(N \log N)\$$ cost to filling the vector l the first time, as it needs to reallocate memory multiple times and copy elements. You can avoid that by calling l.reserve(N) before entering the outer do-loop, but overall this does not influence the total complexity.

Note that while your code might have the best possible time complexity, that does not mean it is the most efficient way to do this. In particular, a lot of time is spent copying v into l. You don't need to do that; you can write your code such that you only need the original array a, and just print its elements in the right order.

• DO NOT edit your code after posting. Read the rules! Jun 11, 2022 at 5:25