2
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After implementing a serial CLOCK second-chance cache in C++ without having enough rope to shoot myself in the foot, decided to dive into Javascript through NodeJs and write an asynchronous one. I think on basic functionality it's nearly complete but there might be some things that I've missed on implementation and unit testing. Also what kind of design pattern could be better? I added Promise-based and multiple key request based versions of get and set methods.

Edit: using new Map instead of plain object for the mapping doubled the cache miss performance, lowered its latency for both reads and writes.

Implementation: (single file source )

'use strict';
/* 
* cacheSize: number of elements in cache, constant, must be greater than or equal to number of asynchronous accessors / cache misses
* callbackBackingStoreLoad: user-given cache(read)-miss function to load data from datastore
*   takes 2 parameters: key, callback
*   example:
*       async function(key,callback){ 
*           redis.get(key,function(data,err){ 
*               callback(data); 
*           }); 
*       }
* callbackBackingStoreSave: user-given cache(write)-miss function to save data to datastore
*   takes 3 parameters: key, value, callback
*   example:
*       async function(key,value,callback){ 
*           redis.set(key,value,function(err){ 
*               callback(); 
*           }); 
*       }
* elementLifeTimeMs: maximum miliseconds before an element is invalidated, only invalidated at next get() or set() call with its key
* flush(): all in-flight get/set accesses are awaited and all edited keys are written back to backing-store. flushes the cache.
* reload(): evicts all cache to reload new values from backing store
* reloadKey(): only evicts selected item (to reload its new value on next access)
*
*/
let Lru = function(cacheSize,callbackBackingStoreLoad,elementLifeTimeMs=1000,callbackBackingStoreSave){
    const me = this;
    const aTypeGet = 0;
    const aTypeSet = 1;
    const maxWait = elementLifeTimeMs;
    const size = parseInt(cacheSize,10);
    const mapping = new Map();
    const mappingInFlightMiss = new Map();
    const bufData = new Array(size);
    const bufVisited = new Uint8Array(size);
    const bufEdited = new Uint8Array(size);
    const bufKey = new Array(size);
    const bufTime = new Float64Array(size);
    const bufLocked = new Uint8Array(size);
    for(let i=0;i<size;i++)
    {
        let rnd = Math.random();
        mapping.set(rnd,i);     
        bufData[i]="";
        bufVisited[i]=0;
        bufEdited[i]=0;
        bufKey[i]=rnd;
        bufTime[i]=0;
        bufLocked[i]=0;
    }
    let ctr = 0;
    let ctrEvict = parseInt(cacheSize/2,10);
    const loadData = callbackBackingStoreLoad;
    const saveData = callbackBackingStoreSave;
    let inFlightMissCtr = 0;
    // refresh all items time-span in cache
    this.reload=function(){
        for(let i=0;i<size;i++)
        {
            bufTime[i]=0;
        }
    };
    // refresh item time-span in cache by triggering eviction
    this.reloadKey=function(key){
        if(mapping.has(key))
        {
            bufTime[mapping[key]]=0;
        }
    };

    // get value by key
    this.get = function(keyPrm,callbackPrm){
        // aType=0: get
        access(keyPrm,callbackPrm,aTypeGet);
    };

    // set value by key (callback returns same value)
    this.set = function(keyPrm,valuePrm,callbackPrm){
        // aType=1: set
        access(keyPrm,callbackPrm,aTypeSet,valuePrm);
    };
    
    // aType=0: get
    // aType=1: set
    function access(keyPrm,callbackPrm,aType,valuePrm){
        
        const key = keyPrm;
        const callback = callbackPrm;
        const value = valuePrm;
        // stop dead-lock when many async get calls are made
        if(inFlightMissCtr>=size)
                {
                    setTimeout(function(){
                // get/set
                access(key,function(newData){
                    callback(newData);
                },aType,value);
            },0);
                    return;
            }
        
        // if key is busy, then delay the request towards end of the cache-miss completion
        if(mappingInFlightMiss.has(key))
        {
            
            setTimeout(function(){
                // get/set
                access(key,function(newData){
                    callback(newData);
                },aType,value);
            },0);
            return;
        }

        if(mapping.has(key))
        {
            // slot is an element in the circular buffer of CLOCK algorithm
            let slot = mapping.get(key);

            // RAM speed data
            if((Date.now() - bufTime[slot]) > maxWait)
            {
                
                // if slot is locked by another operation, postpone the current operation
                if(bufLocked[slot])
                {                                       
                    setTimeout(function(){
                        access(key,function(newData){
                            callback(newData);
                        },aType,value);
                    },0);
                    
                }
                else // slot is not locked and its lifespan has ended
                {
                    // if it was edited, update the backing-store first
                    if(bufEdited[slot] == 1)
                    {
                        bufLocked[slot] = 1;
                        bufEdited[slot]=0;
                        mappingInFlightMiss.set(key,1); // lock key
                        inFlightMissCtr++;
                        // update backing-store, this is async
                        saveData(bufKey[slot],bufData[slot],function(){ 
                            mappingInFlightMiss.delete(key);    // unlock key
                            bufLocked[slot] = 0;
                            inFlightMissCtr--;

                            mapping.delete(key); // disable mapping for current key
                            
                            // re-simulate the access, async
                            access(key,function(newData){
                                callback(newData);
                            },aType,value);

                        });
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        mapping.delete(key); // disable mapping for current key
                        access(key,function(newData){
                            
                            callback(newData);
                        },aType,value);
                    }
                }
                
            }
            else    // slot life span has not ended
            {
                bufVisited[slot]=1;
                bufTime[slot] = Date.now();

                // if it is a "set" operation
                if(aType == aTypeSet)
                {   
                    bufEdited[slot] = 1; // later used when data needs to be written to data-store (write-cache feature)
                    bufData[slot] = value;
                }
                callback(bufData[slot]);
            }
        }
        else
        {
            // datastore loading + cache eviction
            let ctrFound = -1;
            let oldVal = 0;
            let oldKey = 0;
            while(ctrFound===-1)
            {
                // give slot a second chance before eviction
                if(!bufLocked[ctr] && bufVisited[ctr])
                {
                    bufVisited[ctr]=0;
                }
                ctr++;
                if(ctr >= size)
                {
                    ctr=0;
                }

                // eviction conditions
                if(!bufLocked[ctrEvict] && !bufVisited[ctrEvict])
                {
                    // eviction preparations, lock the slot
                    bufLocked[ctrEvict] = 1;
                    inFlightMissCtr++;
                    ctrFound = ctrEvict;
                    oldVal = bufData[ctrFound];
                    oldKey = bufKey[ctrFound];
                }

                ctrEvict++;
                if(ctrEvict >= size)
                {
                    ctrEvict=0;
                }
            }
            
            // user-requested key is now asynchronously in-flight & locked for other operations
            mappingInFlightMiss.set(key,1);
            
            // eviction function. least recently used data is gone, newest recently used data is assigned
            let evict = function(res){

                mapping.delete(bufKey[ctrFound]);

                bufData[ctrFound]=res;
                bufVisited[ctrFound]=0;
                bufKey[ctrFound]=key;
                bufTime[ctrFound]=Date.now();
                bufLocked[ctrFound]=0;

                mapping.set(key,ctrFound);
                callback(res);
                inFlightMissCtr--;
                mappingInFlightMiss.delete(key);
            
            };

            // if old data was edited, send it to data-store first, then fetch new data
            if(bufEdited[ctrFound] == 1)
            {
                if(aType == aTypeGet)
                    bufEdited[ctrFound] = 0;

                // old edited data is sent back to data-store
                saveData(oldKey,oldVal,function(){ 
                    if(aType == aTypeGet)
                        loadData(key,evict);
                    else if(aType == aTypeSet)
                        evict(value);
                });
            }
            else
            {
                if(aType == aTypeSet)
                    bufEdited[ctrFound] = 1;
                if(aType == aTypeGet)
                    loadData(key,evict);
                else if(aType == aTypeSet)
                    evict(value);   
            }
        }
    };

    this.getAwaitable = function(key){
        return new Promise(function(success,fail){ 
            me.get(key,function(data){
                success(data);
            });
        });
    }

    this.setAwaitable = function(key,value){
        return new Promise(function(success,fail){ 
            me.set(key,value,function(data){
                success(data);
            });
        });
    }

    // as many keys as required can be given, separated by commas
    this.getMultiple = function(callback, ... keys){
        let result = [];
        let ctr1 = keys.length;
        for(let i=0;i<ctr1;i++)
            result.push(0);
        let ctr2 = 0;
        keys.forEach(function(key){
            let ctr3 = ctr2++;
            me.get(key,function(data){
                result[ctr3] = data;
                ctr1--;
                if(ctr1==0)
                {
                    callback(result);
                }
            });
        });
    };

    // as many key-value pairs ( in form of { key:foo, value:bar } ) can be given, separated by commas
    this.setMultiple = function(callback, ... keyValuePairs){
        let result = [];
        let ctr1 = keyValuePairs.length;
        for(let i=0;i<ctr1;i++)
            result.push(0);
        let ctr2 = 0;
        keyValuePairs.forEach(function(pair){
            let ctr3 = ctr2++;
            me.set(pair.key,pair.value,function(data){
                result[ctr3] = data;
                ctr1--;
                if(ctr1==0)
                {
                    callback(result);
                }
            });
        });
    };

    // as many keys as required can be given, separated by commas
    this.getMultipleAwaitable = function(... keys){
        return new Promise(function(success,fail){
            me.getMultiple(function(results){
                success(results);
            }, ... keys);
        });
    };

    // as many key-value pairs ( in form of { key:foo, value:bar } ) can be given, separated by commas
    this.setMultipleAwaitable = function(... keyValuePairs){
        return new Promise(function(success,fail){
            me.setMultiple(function(results){
                success(results);
            }, ... keyValuePairs);
        });
    };

    // push all edited slots to backing-store and reset all slots lifetime to "out of date"
    this.flush = function(callback){

        function waitForReadWrite(callbackW){

            // if there are in-flight cache-misses cache-write-misses or active slot locks, then wait
            if(mappingInFlightMiss.size > 0 || bufLocked.reduce((e1,e2)=>{return e1+e2;}) > 0)
            {
                setTimeout(()=>{ waitForReadWrite(callbackW); },10);
            }
            else
                callbackW();
        }
        waitForReadWrite(async function(){  
            for(let i=0;i<size;i++)
            {
                bufTime[i]=0;
                if(bufEdited[i] == 1)
                {       
                    // less concurrency pressure, less failure
                    await me.setAwaitable(bufKey[i],bufData[i]);
                }
            }
            callback(); // flush complete
        });
    };
};

exports.Lru = Lru;

Unit testing:

"use strict";
console.log("tests will take several seconds. results will be shown at end.");
let Lru = require("./lrucache.js").Lru;
let benchData = {hits:0, misses:0, total:0, expires:0, evict:0, evictCtr:0, access50:0, miss50:0};
let errorCheck = {  
    "cache_hit_test":"failed",
    "cache_miss_test":"failed",
    "cache_expire_test":"failed",
    "cache_eviction_test":"failed",
    "cache_50%_hit_ratio":"failed"
};
process.on('exit',function(){
    console.log(errorCheck);
});


let cache = new Lru(1000, async function(key,callback){
    if(key.indexOf("cache_eviction_test")===-1 && key.indexOf("cache_50_hit_ratio_test")===-1)
    setTimeout(function(){
        callback(key+" processed");
    if(key === "cache_miss_test")
    {
        errorCheck[key]="ok";
    }   

    if(key === "cache_hit_test")
    {
        benchData.misses++;
    }

    if(key === "cache_expire_test")
    {
        benchData.expires++;
        if(benchData.expires===2)
            errorCheck[key]="ok";
    }
    
    },1000);
    else if(key === "cache_eviction_test")
    {
    callback(key+" processed");
    benchData.evict++;
    if(benchData.evict === 2)
        errorCheck[key]="ok";
    }
    else
    {
        callback(key+" processed");
    if(key.indexOf("cache_50_hit_ratio_test")!==-1)
    {
        benchData.miss50++;
    }
    }
},1000);

cache.get("cache_miss_test",function(data){  });

for(let i=0;i<5;i++)
{
    
    cache.get("cache_hit_test",function(data){
        benchData.total++;
        if(benchData.total - benchData.misses === 4 && benchData.misses === 1)
        {
            errorCheck["cache_hit_test"]="ok";
        }
    });
}

cache.get("cache_expire_test",function(data){
    setTimeout(function(){
        cache.get("cache_expire_test",function(data){});
    },1500);
});

setTimeout(function(){

    cache.get("cache_eviction_test",function(data){ 
        
        for(let i=0;i<999;i++)
        {
            cache.get("cache_eviction_test_count"+i,function(data){
                benchData.evictCtr++;
                if(benchData.evictCtr===999)
                    cache.get("cache_eviction_test",function(data){ });
            });
        }
    });
},3000);

setTimeout(function(){

    let ctrMax = 100; // don't pick too low value, causes some uncertainity on 50% hit ratio
    function repeat(cur){
        if(cur>0)
        for(let i=0;i<900;i++)
        {
            cache.get("cache_50_hit_ratio_test"+parseInt(Math.random()*2000,10),function(data){
                benchData.access50++;
                if(benchData.access50===900)
                {           
                    benchData.access50=0;       
                    if(benchData.miss50>400*ctrMax && benchData.miss50< 500*ctrMax)
                        errorCheck["cache_50%_hit_ratio"]="ok";     
                    repeat(cur-1);          
                }
            });
        }
    }

    repeat(ctrMax);
},5000);

Caching Redis For Get/Set Operations:

"use strict"

// backing-store
const Redis = require("ioredis");
const redis = new Redis(); 

// LRU cache
let Lru = require("./lrucache.js").Lru;
let num_cache_elements = 1500;
let element_life_time_miliseconds = 1000;

let cache = new Lru(num_cache_elements, async function(key,callback){
    redis.get(key, function (err, result) {
        callback(result);
    });
}, element_life_time_miliseconds, async function(key,value,callback){
    redis.set(key,value, function (err, result) {
        callback();
    });
});

const N_repeat = 20;
const N_bench = 20000;
const N_concurrency = 100;
const N_dataset = 1000;

function randomKey(){ return Math.floor(Math.random()*N_dataset); }

// without LRU caching
async function benchWithout(callback){

    for(let i=0;i<N_bench;i+=N_concurrency){
        let ctr = 0;
        let w8 = new Promise((success,fail)=>{
            for(let j=0;j<N_concurrency;j++)
            {
                redis.set(randomKey(),i, function (err, result) {
                    redis.get(randomKey(), function (err, result) {
                        ctr++;
                        if(ctr == N_concurrency)
                        {
                            success(1);
                        }   
                    });
                });
            }
        });
        let result = await w8;

    }
    callback();
}

// with LRU caching
async function benchWith(callback){
    for(let i=0;i<N_bench;i+=N_concurrency){
        let ctr = 0;
        let w8 = new Promise((success,fail)=>{
            for(let j=0;j<N_concurrency;j++)
            {
                cache.set(randomKey(),i, function (result) {
                    cache.get(randomKey(), function (result) {
                        ctr++;
                        if(ctr == N_concurrency)
                        {
                            success(1);
                        }   
                    });
                });
            }
        });
        let result = await w8;

    }
    callback();
}

let ctr = 0;
function restartWithoutLRU(callback){
    let t = Date.now();
    benchWithout(function(){
        console.log("without LRU: "+(Date.now() - t)+" milliseconds");
        ctr++;
        if(ctr != N_repeat)
        {
            restartWithoutLRU(callback);
        }
        else
        {
            ctr=0;
            callback();
        }
    });
}

function restartWithLRU(){
    let t = Date.now();
    benchWith(function(){
        console.log("with LRU: "+(Date.now() - t)+" milliseconds");
        ctr++;
        if(ctr != N_repeat)
        {
            restartWithLRU();
        }
        
    });
}


restartWithoutLRU(restartWithLRU);

On my low end computer (2GHz bulldozer cpu, 1 channel ddr3 1600MHz), API overhead causes a performance limitation that is around 1500 cache (read/write) hits per millisecond and about 850 cache (read/write) misses per millisecond. I couldn't find any better way to keep asynchronity and run faster. Would it be logical to shard the cache on multiple cores and have a multi-core cache or would it be better with single thread server serving to all cores?

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Overfall feedback

This review will mostly focus on the usage of JavaScript features used and not so much on the actual algorithm.

The code has many repeated lines/blocks, which violates the Don't Repeat Yourself principle. For example, the following block appears at least five times, sometimes wrapped in a call to setTimeout():

 access(key,function(newData){
               callback(newData);
           },aType,value);

Down below there is a section about simplifying that callback function. But this repeated block could be moved to a method and called whenever needed instead of repeating that block.

The function access is quite lengthy. It would be better if it could be broken down into smaller functions. The next section mentions the JavaScript Class syntax - that could help simplify the code if . The revealing module pattern could also be used to make "private" methods that are not exposed with the exported module code.

Prototype

Maybe you know this but in case not: Javascript is a Prototype based language. While it it will still work to assign methods via this.[methodName] = it will be more efficient to store it on the prototype1 though if it is typically used as a singleton then it likely wouldn't make much difference. The Class syntax could also be used .

Variable declarations

Some variables are declared with let but are never re-assigned and thus could be declared with const - e.g. Lru, rnd, etc. It is a good habit to default to using const and then switch to let when re-assignment is deemed necessary - mostly with loop counters. This can help avoid accidental re-assignment and other bugs.

referencing outer function context

Instead of using me = this the context could be bound using Function.bind(), or else just use arrow functions (like used in waitForReadWrite) since they don't have a separate binding of this.

Readability

Most style guides recommend a space after operators like :, , and argument names.

Idiomatic Javascript does not have brackets start on a new line - especially for for loops and conditional blocks.

Strict mode

It is great that 'use strict'; is used, though JavaScript modules are automatically in strict mode2 so it is superfluous to have that in the module.

Simplifications

exporting Lru

Instead of exporting Lru like this:

exports.Lru = Lru;

Just export Lru like this:

module.exports = Lru;

Then instead of accessing it like this:

let Lru = require("./lrucache.js").Lru;

it can be included like this:

let Lru = require("./lrucache.js")

wrapper functions around callbacks

There are numerous places like this

access(key,function(newData){
               callback(newData);
           },aType,value);

Unless the function that calls the callback passes more arguments than one, those extra wrapping functions/closures can be removed:

access(key, callback, aType, value);

And callback will receive newData.

adding elements to an array

In the method getMultiple the array result can be declared in a simpler fashion:

this.getMultiple = function(callback, ... keys){
    let result = [];
    let ctr1 = keys.length;
    for(let i=0;i<ctr1;i++)
        result.push(0);

This could be simplified with the Array method map() but that might not be as efficient. However another solution is to use the Array method .fill()

const result = Array(keys.length).fill(0);

determining if a string includes a substring

There are three places where String.indexOf() is compared with -1 - e.g.

if(key.indexOf("cache_50_hit_ratio_test")!==-1)

This could be simplified using the ES-6 String method includes():

if(!key.includes("cache_50_hit_ratio_test"))
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