Iris Data Set consists of three classes in which versicolor and virginica are not linearly separable from each other.

I constructed a subset for these two classes, here is the code

from sklearn.datasets import load_iris
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
import numpy as np
iris = load_iris()
x_train = iris.data[50:]
y_train = iris.target[50:]
y_train = y_train - 1
x_train, x_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(
    x_train, y_train, test_size=0.33, random_state=2021)

and then I built a Logistic Regression model for this binary classification

def sigmoid(z):
    s = 1 / (1 + np.exp(-z))
    return s

class LogisticRegression:
    def __init__(self, eta=.05, n_epoch=10, model_w=np.full(4, .5), model_b=.0):
        self.eta = eta
        self.n_epoch = n_epoch
        self.model_w = model_w
        self.model_b = model_b

    def activation(self, x):
        z = np.dot(x, self.model_w) + self.model_b
        return sigmoid(z)
    def predict(self, x):
        a = self.activation(x)
        if a >= 0.5:
            return 1
            return 0

    def update_weights(self, x, y, verbose=False):
        a = self.activation(x)
        dz = a - y
        self.model_w -= self.eta * dz * x
        self.model_b -= self.eta * dz
    def fit(self, x, y, verbose=False, seed=None):
        indices = np.arange(len(x))
        for i in range(self.n_epoch):
            n_iter = 0
            for idx in indices:
                    self.update_weights(x[idx], y[idx], verbose)
                    n_iter += 1
                print('model gets 100% train accuracy after {} epoch(s)'.format(i))

I added the param seed for reproduction.

import time
start_time = time.time()
w_mnist = np.full(4, .1)
classifier_mnist = LogisticRegression(.05, 1000, w_mnist)
classifier_mnist.fit(x_train, y_train, seed=0)
print('model trained {:.5f} s'.format(time.time() - start_time))

y_prediction = np.array(list(map(classifier_mnist.predict, x_train)))
acc = np.count_nonzero(y_prediction==y_train)
print('train accuracy {:.5f}'.format(acc/len(y_train)))

y_prediction = np.array(list(map(classifier_mnist.predict, x_test)))
acc = np.count_nonzero(y_prediction==y_test)
print('test accuracy {:.5f}'.format(acc/len(y_test)))

The accuracy is

train accuracy 0.95522
test accuracy 0.96970

the link is my github repo


1 Answer 1


This is a very nice little project but there are some thing to upgrade here :)

Code beautification

  1. Split everything to functions, there is no reason to put logic outside of a function, including the prediction part (this will remove the code duplication) and call everything from a main function. For example a loading function:
def load_and_split_iris(data_cut: int=50, train_test_ratio: float=0,333)
    iris = load_iris()
    x_train = iris.data[data_cut:]
    y_train = iris.target[data_cut:]
    y_train = y_train - 1
    x_train, x_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(
        x_train, y_train, test_size=train_test_ratio, random_state=2021)
    return x_train, x_test, y_train, y_test
  1. Magic numbers make your code look bad, turn them into a CODE_CONSTANTS.
  2. I really like type annotations, it will make your code more understandable for future usage and you will not confuse with the types. I added them in the code example in 1. Another example: def fit(self, x: np.array, y: np.array, verbose: bool=False, seed: int=None):. Type annotation can also declare return type, read into that.
  3. String formatting, this: 'model gets 100% train accuracy after {} epoch(s)'.format(i) and turn into f'model gets 100% train accuracy after {i} epoch(s)'.


You reset the seed every loop (LogisticRegression.fit), in case you are passing None this is fine (since the OS will generate random for you) but if you pass a specific seed the numbers will be the same each time you shuffle. Take the seed setting outside of the loop.

Future work

If you are looking to continue the work I recommend to try and create a multiclass logistic regression.


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