I've written a program that gets the web API endpoint for some functions on a website. I'm just wondering if you guys see anything I could do to improve the code at all.

import sys
import requests
import dateutil

class KenoBase:
    Methods that are to be inherited to 'KenoAPI' class.
    Do not use this class, instead use 'KenoAPI''.

    def __init__(self, state="NT"):
        self.__state__ = state.upper()
        self.__states__ = ["ACT", "NSW", "QLD", "VIC", "WA", "NT", "SA", "TAS"]
        self.__base_url__ = "https://api-info-{}.keno.com.au".format(

    def __get_url__(self, end_point="", additional_params=""):
        Private Method:
        concatenates the base URL and the endpoint together a
        long with additional parameters
        end_point = str(end_point)
        params = "?jurisdiction={}".format(
        self.__state_redirect__) + additional_params
        complete_url = self.__base_url__ + end_point + params

        return str(complete_url)

    def __state_redirect__(self):
        Private Method:
        redirects user input
        if any(x == self.__state__ for x in self.__states__) is False:
            return sys.exit(str("Check state input: '{}' - is invalid").format(

        if self.__state__ == self.__states__[4]:
            print("Keno is not available in WA-Automatically changed to NSW")
            self.__state__ = self.__states__[2]
            return self.__state__

        redirect = [self.__states__[5], self.__states__[6], self.__states__[7]]

        if any(x == self.__state__ for x in redirect) is True:
            print(str("Keno is not available in '{}', this state uses ACT ").format(
            self.__state__ = self.__states__[0]
            return self.__state__

        return self.__state__

    # noinspection PyDefaultArgument
    def __nested_dict__(key=dict, additional_key=""):
        Private Method:    
        this function speeds up the lookup times for nested dictionaries
        return key.get(additional_key)

    def __transform_time__(self, _datetime):
        Private Method:
        Transforms a date in a datetime object with the correct 
        time information, it also factors in daylight savings
        currently working on adding tz and dst to this function
        return dateutil.parser.isoparse(_datetime).strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S.%f")

    def __results_selection__(self, initial_draw=1, 
      total_draws=1, start_date="2021-02-08", page_size=1, page_number=1):
        Private Method:
            initial_draw: the first game number
            total_draws: how many games you want to select
            start_date: which date you would like to get the games from
            page_size: how many games are on each page
            page_number: if your page size is less than the total draws the games will be split among multiple pages
            Min adn Max values for a each parameter 
            game_number: Min: 0, Max: 999
            Number of Games: Min:1, Max:200
            page_size: Min:1, Max:200
            page_number: Min:1, Max:100

        url = self.__get_url__(end_point="/v2/info/history", additional_params="&starting_game_number={}&number_of_games={}&date={}&page_size={}&page_number={}").format(
            initial_draw, total_draws, start_date, page_size, page_number)
        return dict(requests.get(url).json())

class KenoAPI(KenoBase):
    Has all possible URL endpoints.
    To learn more visit the wiki. https://github.com/JGolafshan/KenoAPI/wiki/Keno-API-Functions

    def __init__(self, state):

    def game_status(self):
        Public Method:
            Desc: Retrieves information about the current and next game
        url = self.__get_url__(end_point="/v2/games/kds", additional_params="")
        retrieved = dict(requests.get(url).json())

        status_current = {
            "starting_time": self.__transform_time__(_datetime=self.__nested_dict__(key=retrieved.get("current"), additional_key="closed")),
            "game_number": self.__nested_dict__(key=retrieved.get("current"), additional_key="game-number")

        status_selling = {
            "starting_time": self.__transform_time__(_datetime=self.__nested_dict__(key=retrieved.get("selling"), additional_key="closing")),
            "game_number": self.__nested_dict__(key=retrieved.get("selling"), additional_key="game-number")

        status = {
            "state": self.__state__,
            "current_game": status_current,
            "next_game": status_selling

        return status

    def live_draw(self):
        Public Method:
            Desc: Retrieves data from the current draw
        url = self.__get_url__(end_point="/v2/games/kds", additional_params="")
        retrieved = dict(requests.get(url).json().get("current"))
        status = str(retrieved.get("_type")).split(".")
        status_type = status[-1]

        live_draw = {
            "state": self.__state__,
            "game_number": retrieved.get("game-number"),
            "status": status_type,
            "started_at": self.__transform_time__(_datetime=retrieved.get("closed")),
            "is_finished": None,
            "draw_numbers": retrieved.get("draw"),
            "bonus": self.__nested_dict__(retrieved.get("variants"), additional_key="bonus"),
            "heads": self.__nested_dict__(retrieved.get("variants"), additional_key="heads-or-tails")["heads"],
            "tails": self.__nested_dict__(retrieved.get("variants"), additional_key="heads-or-tails")["tails"],
            "result": self.__nested_dict__(retrieved.get("variants"), additional_key="heads-or-tails")["result"]

        if retrieved.get("_type") == "application/vnd.tabcorp.keno.game.complete":
            live_draw.update({"is_finished": bool(True)})

            live_draw.update({"is_finished": bool(False)})

        return live_draw

    def jackpot(self):
        Public Method:
            Desc: Retrieves MegaMillions(leveraged) and Regular jackpots
        url = self.__get_url__(
            end_point="/v2/info/jackpots", additional_params="")
        retrieved = dict(requests.get(url).json())["jackpots"]

        jackpot_regular = {
            "ten_spot": self.__nested_dict__(key=retrieved.get("ten-spot"), additional_key="base"),
            "nine_spot": self.__nested_dict__(key=retrieved.get("nine-spot"), additional_key="base"),
            "eight_spot": self.__nested_dict__(key=retrieved.get("eight-spot"), additional_key="base"),
            "seven_spot": self.__nested_dict__(key=retrieved.get("seven-spot"), additional_key="base")

        jackpot_leveraged = {
            "ten_spot": self.__nested_dict__(key=retrieved.get("ten-spot-mm"), additional_key="base"),
            "nine_spot": self.__nested_dict__(key=retrieved.get("nine-spot-mm"), additional_key="base"),
            "eight_spot": self.__nested_dict__(key=retrieved.get("eight-spot-mm"), additional_key="base"),
            "seven_spot": self.__nested_dict__(key=retrieved.get("seven-spot-mm"), additional_key="base")

        jackpot_combined = {
            "state": self.__state__,
            "regular": jackpot_regular,
            "leveraged": jackpot_leveraged

        return jackpot_combined

    def hot_cold(self):
        Public Method:
            Desc: Retrieves trending numbers which are defined the official keno website
        url = self.__get_url__(
            end_point="/v2/info/hotCold", additional_params="")
        retrieved = dict(requests.get(url).json())

        hot_cold = {
            "cold": retrieved.get("coldNumbers"),
            "hot": retrieved.get("hotNumbers"),
            "last_updated": retrieved.get("secondsSinceLastReceived"),
            "state": self.__state__
        return hot_cold
  • \$\begingroup\$ Can you show how this is invoked? \$\endgroup\$
    – Reinderien
    Commented Jul 9, 2021 at 15:59
  • \$\begingroup\$ Calling KenoAPI('NT').game_status() fails - you're not checking for the success of your get, but it's returning a 403. \$\endgroup\$
    – Reinderien
    Commented Jul 9, 2021 at 16:06
  • \$\begingroup\$ In fact the site seems entirely down, as I get a 403 no matter what URL I visit \$\endgroup\$
    – Reinderien
    Commented Jul 9, 2021 at 16:24
  • \$\begingroup\$ Hey, I'm not too sure what happened to the website, When I posted this everything was working fine. Seems like bad luck that it happened when it did. \$\endgroup\$ Commented Jul 10, 2021 at 1:17

1 Answer 1


Aside the fact that I can't test anything due to the site being down, the code has some issues that could be cleaned up:

  • It's not clear why KenoBase exists - there's only one child, and I don't see this buying you any useful abstraction
  • You need to get out of the habit of __decorating__ your members. Double underscores are reserved for name mangling. Private variables in Python are very much "by convention" instead of being enforced, and use a single leading underscore rather than leading and trailing dunders.
  • The params = "?jurisdiction={}" setup you do is unneeded, and should be rewritten as a params kwarg dict passed into get() rather than being baked into the URL
  • str(complete_url) is redundant; that's already a string
  • if any(...) is False should be if not any(...); and if any(...) is True should be if any(...)
  • Consider replacing your format() calls with interpolated f-strings
  • return sys.exit makes no sense. exit will raise an exception meant to cut through the stack and terminate the program, and so certainly the return will not happen.
  • key=dict is a mystery. You're setting the default of the key argument to be a type. If you allow the default to be set, then key.get() is going to explode.
  • The pass in transform_time can be deleted
  • There is no need to re-cast the result of json() into a dict; it's already a dict

Lines like this:


should be

with requests.get(url) as response:
    retrieved = response.json()

otherwise, when the site fails (as it is now with a 403) your application will not fail as early as it should, and the error will be much less clear.

  • \$\begingroup\$ Hey, thanks for all the useful pointers, regarding the private methods, is there any way I can make them so they can only be used inside the class, for example when KenoAPI("NT") is called I don't want the user to have access to state_redirect \$\endgroup\$ Commented Jul 10, 2021 at 1:23
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Not really, no. Convention is that privates are marked with one underscore, but they can still be accessed. \$\endgroup\$
    – Reinderien
    Commented Jul 10, 2021 at 3:14
  • \$\begingroup\$ I found something regarding this, using '__decorating' hides the function or variable when calling it outside the class. \$\endgroup\$ Commented Jul 10, 2021 at 15:08
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Don't do it. Read stackoverflow.com/questions/7456807/python-name-mangling \$\endgroup\$
    – Reinderien
    Commented Jul 10, 2021 at 15:21

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