# Python script that makes ngrams

This is a Python script that generates ngrams using a set of rules of what letters can follow a letter stored in a dictionary.

The output is then preliminarily processed using another script, then it will be filtered further using an api of sorts by number of words containing the ngrams, the result will be used in pseudoword generation.

This is the generation part:

from string import ascii_lowercase
import sys

LETTERS = set(ascii_lowercase)
VOWELS = set('aeiouy')
CONSONANTS = LETTERS - VOWELS

BASETAILS = {
'a': CONSONANTS,
'b': 'bjlr',
'c': 'chjklr',
'd': 'dgjw',
'e': CONSONANTS,
'f': 'fjlr',
'g': 'ghjlrw',
'h': '',
'i': CONSONANTS,
'j': '',
'k': 'hklrvw',
'l': 'l',
'm': 'cm',
'n': 'gn',
'o': CONSONANTS,
'p': 'fhlprst',
'q': '',
'r': 'hrw',
's': 'chjklmnpqstw',
't': 'hjrstw',
'u': CONSONANTS,
'v': 'lv',
'w': 'hr',
'x': 'h',
'y': 'sv',
'z': 'hlvw'
}

tails = dict()

for i in ascii_lowercase:
v = BASETAILS[i]
if type(v) == set:
v = ''.join(sorted(v))
tails.update({i: ''.join(sorted('aeiou' + v))})

def makechain(invar, target, depth=0):
depth += 1
if type(invar) == str:
invar = set(invar)
chain = invar.copy()
if depth == target:
return sorted(chain)
else:
for i in invar:
for j in tails[i[-1]]:
return makechain(chain, target, depth)

if __name__ == '__main__':
invar = sys.argv[1]
target = int(sys.argv[2])
if invar in globals():
invar = eval(invar)
print(*makechain(invar, target), sep='\n')


I want to ask about the makechain function, I used sets because somehow the results can contain duplicates if I used lists, though the result can be cast to set, I used a nested for loop and a recursive function to simulate a variable number of for loops.

For example, makechain(LETTERS, 4) is equivalent to:

chain = set()
for a in LETTERS:
for a in LETTERS:
for b in tails[a]:
for a in LETTERS:
for b in tails[a]:
for c in tails[b]:
for a in LETTERS:
for b in tails[a]:
for c in tails[b]:
for d in tails[c]:
chain.add(a + b + c + d)


Obviously makechain(LETTERS, 4) is much better than the nested for loop approach, it is much more flexible.

I want to know, is there anyway I can use a function from itertools instead of the nested for loop to generate the same results more efficiently?

I am thinking about itertools.product and itertools.combinations but I just can't figure out how to do it.

Any help will be appreciated.

Any help will be appreciated

A few suggestions on something that I noticed:

• In the function makechain the else after the return is not necessary.

• Typo in: VOWELS = set('aeiouy'), there is an extra y.

• This part:

LETTERS = set(ascii_lowercase)
VOWELS = set('aeiou')
CONSONANTS = LETTERS - VOWELS

BASETAILS = {
'a': CONSONANTS,
'b': 'bjlr',
'c': 'chjklr',
'd': 'dgjw',
....
}

tails = dict()

for i in ascii_lowercase:
v = BASETAILS[i]
if type(v) == set:
v = ''.join(sorted(v))
tails.update({i: ''.join(sorted('aeiou' + v))})


seems to do the following:

1. Create a dictionary with mixed value's type (strings and sets)
2. Convert all values to string
3. Sort dictionary's values

It could be simplified to:

1. Create a dictionary where all values are strings
2. Sort dictionary's values

Additionally, having VOWELS as a set and CONSONANTS as a string is a bit confusing. Would be better to use only one type.

Code with suggestions above:

LETTERS = ascii_lowercase
VOWELS = 'aeiou'
CONSONANTS = ''.join(set(LETTERS) - set(VOWELS))

BASETAILS = {
'a': CONSONANTS,
'b': 'bjlr',
'c': 'chjklr',
'd': 'dgjw',
....
}

tails = dict()

for i in ascii_lowercase:
v = BASETAILS[i]
tails.update({i: ''.join(sorted(VOWELS + v))})


In this way, you also avoid sorting twice.