I wrote this code to simply visualise what happens to an image when it gets put through repeated convolutional filters is a CNN.

The code works fine and produces the expected result but the it is also very inefficient.

One thing I can't figure out is when we want to apply convolutional filters to the input image we need to create a number of submatrices of specified shape from the original matrix, but I can't see to figure out how to do this correctly. The current solution involves cycling through indices in both axes which has O(n^2) complexity. How can I do it more efficiently?

Also any other suggestions welcome.

import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from PIL import Image

def load_and_prepare_image(file_loc: str, new_size: tuple):
    Load image, normalise, resize and convert to greyscale. 

    file_loc: image file location
    new_size: resize original image to this size.
    with Image.open(file_loc) as f:
        f = f.resize(new_size)
        img = np.asarray(f)/255
    # Convert to black/white
    bw_img = np.mean(img, axis=2)
    bw_img.reshape(1, -1)
    return [bw_img]    # return a list because will need a list down the line

def init_filters(n: int, shape: tuple) -> list:
    Initialise random filters.

    n: number of filters to create
    shape: required shape of filters
    filters = [np.random.randint(-100, 100, shape) for i in range(n)]
    return filters    

def get_submatrix(matrix: np.ndarray, size: tuple, start_idx: tuple):
    Get a submatrix of a specified size from the original image array.
    ax0_slice = slice(start_idx[0], start_idx[0] + size[0])
    ax1_slice = slice(start_idx[1], start_idx[1] + size[1])
    return matrix[ax0_slice, ax1_slice]

def calculate_single_conv(
    matrix: np.ndarray,
    kernel: np.ndarray,
    conv_size: tuple,
    step: tuple
    Apply a single convolution filter to an image.

        matrix: matrix of the input image
        kernel: an array of size conv_size representing
            convolutional filter.
        conv_size: size of the colvolutional filter
        step: number of pixels to traverse when applying
            convolutional filter.
    m = matrix.shape[0]
    k = kernel.shape[0]
    res_shape = int(((m - k) / step[0]) + 1)
    res = np.zeros((res_shape, res_shape))
    for j in range(0, m, step[1]):
        row_no = j // step[1]
        for i in range(0, m, step[0]):
            col_no = i // step[0]
            start_idx = (i, j)
            sub = get_submatrix(matrix, start_idx=start_idx, size=conv_size)
                pix = np.sum(np.matmul(sub, kernel))  
                    res[col_no, row_no] = pix
                except IndexError:
            except ValueError:
                    res[col_no, row_no] = 0
                except IndexError:
    return res
def pool_result(res: np.ndarray, pool_size: int):
    Downscale (pool) the resulting image by taking the maximum
    value of a submatrix of shape (pool_size, pool_size).

    res: input image with convolutional filter applied
    pool_size: dimension of m*m matrix.
    starts = [i for i in range(0, res.shape[0], pool_size) if (i + pool_size) <= res.shape[0]]
    out = np.zeros((len(starts), len(starts)))
    for idx_i, i in enumerate(starts):
        for idx_j, j in enumerate(starts):
            p = res[i:i + pool_size, j: j + pool_size]
                out[idx_i, idx_j] = p.max()
            except ValueError:
    return out

def calculate_multiple_conv(list_of_mat: list,
                            n_kernels: int,
                            shape: tuple,
                            step: tuple,
                            pool_size: int = None):
    Calculate and plot convolutions for multiple images and multiple
    convolutional filters.

        list_of_mat: list of matrices (images) to apply filters to.
        n_kernels: number of randomly generated filters. 
        shape: shape of convolutional kernel.
        step: number of pixels to traverse with each new step.
        pool_size: if integer defines the size of m * m downsampling 
            ( max pooling) matrix. If None - no downsampling applied
            to resulting matrix.
    filters = init_filters(n_kernels, shape)
    cols = 4
    n_mat = len(list_of_mat)
    if n_kernels % 4 == 0:
        rows = n_kernels  // 4
        rows = (n_kernels  // 4) + 1
    out_mat = []
    for m in list_of_mat:
        fig, axs = plt.subplots(nrows=rows, ncols=cols, figsize=((20, 20)))
        for (idx, axi), fil in zip(enumerate(axs.flat), filters):
            img = calculate_single_conv(m, fil, conv_size=shape, step=step)
            row = idx // cols
            col = idx % cols
            if pool_size is not None:
                img = pool_result(img, pool_size=pool_size)
            axi.imshow(img, cmap='gray')
    return out_mat

if __name__ == '__main__':
    file = 'download.jpg'
    mat = load_and_prepare_image(file, new_size=(64, 64))
    conv_1 = calculate_multiple_conv(mat, n_kernels=8, shape=(3, 3), step=(1, 1), pool_size=None)
    # conv_2 = calculate_multiple_conv(conv_1, n_kernels=4, shape=(3, 3), step=(1, 1), pool_size=None)
    # conv_3 = calculate_multiple_conv(conv_2, n_kernels=4, shape=(3, 3), step=(1, 1), pool_size=None)
    # conv_4 = calculate_multiple_conv(conv_3, n_kernels=4, shape=(3, 3), step=(1, 1), pool_size=None)


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