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I've been learning C as my first language and recently I decided to learn how to create Win32 apps written in C. I Quickly realized, though, that my biggest challenge wasn't writing the Win32 app itself, but more how to implement logic and design into the program.

I would therefore really appreciate any feedback about how I can improve my code. Thanks in advance!

Since it is a Win32 API application, I should mention that I have (tried to) use Hungarian notation.

main.c

#include <windows.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdbool.h>
#include "main.h"

// Global vars
const char g_szClassName[] = "MainWindowClass";
char strValue[MAX_DIGITS+3];

int OperatorType = ADD;
int OperandType = LEFT;
int NumDigits = 0;
double LeftOperand = 0;
double RightOperand = 0;

// Flags
bool DecimalFlag = false;
bool OperatorFlag = false;
bool ContinueCalcFlag = false;
bool FinalCalcFlag = false;
bool FinalValueConversion = false;

LRESULT CALLBACK WndProc(HWND hwnd, UINT message, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam);

void InsertStringNumber(char Value, char *strValue);
void DeleteStringNumber(char *strValue);
void InsertDecimalPoint(void);
void ValueConversion(void);
void InsertOperator(char Value, char *strValue);
void ChangeOperand(void);
void CalculateOperand(void);
void CalculateDoubleResult(void);
void CalculateStringResult(void);
void Reset(void);
void ChangeNumDigits(double Operand);
void RemoveStringDecimal(void);

int WINAPI WinMain(HINSTANCE hInstance, HINSTANCE hPrevInstance,
    LPSTR lpCmdLine, int nCmdShow)
{
    WNDCLASSEX wc;
    HWND hwnd;
    MSG msg;

    wc.cbSize        = sizeof(WNDCLASSEX);
    wc.style         = 0;
    wc.lpfnWndProc   = WndProc;
    wc.cbClsExtra    = 0;
    wc.cbWndExtra    = 0;
    wc.hInstance     = hInstance;
    wc.hIcon         = LoadIcon(NULL, IDI_APPLICATION);
    wc.hCursor       = LoadCursor(NULL, IDC_ARROW);
    wc.hbrBackground = (HBRUSH)(COLOR_WINDOW+1);
    wc.lpszMenuName  = NULL;
    wc.lpszClassName = g_szClassName;
    wc.hIconSm       = LoadIcon(NULL, IDI_APPLICATION);

    if (!RegisterClassEx(&wc)) {
        MessageBox(NULL, "Window Registration Failed!", "Error!",
            MB_ICONEXCLAMATION | MB_OK);
        return 0;
    }

    hwnd = CreateWindowEx(
        WS_EX_CLIENTEDGE,
        g_szClassName,
        "Calculator v. 1.0",
        WS_OVERLAPPED | WS_MINIMIZEBOX | WS_SYSMENU,
        CW_USEDEFAULT, CW_USEDEFAULT, CALC_WIDTH, CALC_HEIGHT,
        NULL, NULL, hInstance, NULL);

    if (hwnd == NULL) {
        MessageBox(NULL, "Window Creation Failed!", "Error!",
            MB_ICONEXCLAMATION | MB_OK);
        return 0;
    }

    ShowWindow(hwnd, nCmdShow);
    UpdateWindow(hwnd);

    while (GetMessage(&msg, NULL, 0, 0) > 0) {
        TranslateMessage(&msg);
        DispatchMessage(&msg);
    }
    return msg.wParam;
}

LRESULT CALLBACK WndProc(HWND hwnd, UINT message, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam)
{
    static HWND hwndStatic;

    switch (message) {
        case WM_CREATE:
        {
            hwndStatic = CreateWindowEx(
                WS_EX_STATICEDGE, "STATIC", "0",
                WS_VISIBLE | WS_CHILD | SS_RIGHT,
                RESULT_X + ROW_GAP, RESULT_Y, RESULT_WIDTH, RESULT_HEIGHT,
                hwnd, (HMENU) IDC_STATIC_RESULT, GetModuleHandle(NULL), NULL);

            CreateWindow(
                "BUTTON", "7",
                WS_VISIBLE | WS_CHILD,
                BUTTON_ROW_X * 0 + ROW_GAP, BUTTON_ROW_Y * 1, BUTTON_WIDTH, BUTTON_HEIGHT,
                hwnd, (HMENU) IDC_BUTTON_SEVEN, GetModuleHandle(NULL), NULL);

            CreateWindow(
                "BUTTON", "8",
                WS_VISIBLE | WS_CHILD,
                BUTTON_ROW_X * 1 + ROW_GAP, BUTTON_ROW_Y * 1, BUTTON_WIDTH, BUTTON_HEIGHT,
                hwnd, (HMENU) IDC_BUTTON_EIGHT, GetModuleHandle(NULL), NULL);

            CreateWindow(
                "BUTTON", "9",
                WS_VISIBLE | WS_CHILD,
                BUTTON_ROW_X * 2 + ROW_GAP, BUTTON_ROW_Y * 1, BUTTON_WIDTH, BUTTON_HEIGHT,
                hwnd, (HMENU) IDC_BUTTON_NINE, GetModuleHandle(NULL), NULL);

            CreateWindow(
                "BUTTON", "+/-",
                WS_VISIBLE | WS_CHILD,
                BUTTON_ROW_X * 3 + ROW_GAP, BUTTON_ROW_Y * 1, BUTTON_WIDTH, BUTTON_HEIGHT,
                hwnd, (HMENU) IDC_BUTTON_NEGATIVE, GetModuleHandle(NULL), NULL);

            CreateWindow(
                "BUTTON", "DEL",
                WS_VISIBLE | WS_CHILD,
                BUTTON_ROW_X * 4 + ROW_GAP, BUTTON_ROW_Y * 1, BUTTON_WIDTH, BUTTON_HEIGHT,
                hwnd, (HMENU) IDC_BUTTON_DEL, GetModuleHandle(NULL), NULL);

            CreateWindow(
                "BUTTON", "4",
                WS_VISIBLE | WS_CHILD,
                BUTTON_ROW_X * 0 + ROW_GAP, BUTTON_ROW_Y * 2, BUTTON_WIDTH, BUTTON_HEIGHT,
                hwnd, (HMENU) IDC_BUTTON_FOUR, GetModuleHandle(NULL), NULL);

            CreateWindow(
                "BUTTON", "5",
                WS_VISIBLE | WS_CHILD,
                BUTTON_ROW_X * 1 + ROW_GAP, BUTTON_ROW_Y * 2, BUTTON_WIDTH, BUTTON_HEIGHT,
                hwnd, (HMENU) IDC_BUTTON_FIVE, GetModuleHandle(NULL), NULL);

            CreateWindow(
                "BUTTON", "6",
                WS_VISIBLE | WS_CHILD,
                BUTTON_ROW_X * 2 + ROW_GAP, BUTTON_ROW_Y * 2, BUTTON_WIDTH, BUTTON_HEIGHT,
                hwnd, (HMENU) IDC_BUTTON_SIX, GetModuleHandle(NULL), NULL);

            CreateWindow(
                "BUTTON", "x",
                WS_VISIBLE | WS_CHILD,
                BUTTON_ROW_X * 3 + ROW_GAP, BUTTON_ROW_Y * 2, BUTTON_WIDTH, BUTTON_HEIGHT,
                hwnd, (HMENU) IDC_BUTTON_MULTIPLICATION, GetModuleHandle(NULL), NULL);

            CreateWindow(
                "BUTTON", "/",
                WS_VISIBLE | WS_CHILD,
                BUTTON_ROW_X * 4 + ROW_GAP, BUTTON_ROW_Y * 2, BUTTON_WIDTH, BUTTON_HEIGHT,
                hwnd, (HMENU) IDC_BUTTON_DIVISION, GetModuleHandle(NULL), NULL);

            CreateWindow(
                "BUTTON", "1",
                WS_VISIBLE | WS_CHILD,
                BUTTON_ROW_X * 0 + ROW_GAP, BUTTON_ROW_Y * 3, BUTTON_WIDTH, BUTTON_HEIGHT,
                hwnd, (HMENU) IDC_BUTTON_ONE, GetModuleHandle(NULL), NULL);

            CreateWindow(
                "BUTTON", "2",
                WS_VISIBLE | WS_CHILD,
                BUTTON_ROW_X * 1 + ROW_GAP, BUTTON_ROW_Y * 3, BUTTON_WIDTH, BUTTON_HEIGHT,
                hwnd, (HMENU) IDC_BUTTON_TWO, GetModuleHandle(NULL), NULL);

            CreateWindow(
                "BUTTON", "3",
                WS_VISIBLE | WS_CHILD,
                BUTTON_ROW_X * 2 + ROW_GAP, BUTTON_ROW_Y * 3, BUTTON_WIDTH, BUTTON_HEIGHT,
                hwnd, (HMENU) IDC_BUTTON_THREE, GetModuleHandle(NULL), NULL);

            CreateWindow(
                "BUTTON", "-",
                WS_VISIBLE | WS_CHILD,
                BUTTON_ROW_X * 3 + ROW_GAP, BUTTON_ROW_Y * 3, BUTTON_WIDTH, BUTTON_HEIGHT,
                hwnd, (HMENU) IDC_BUTTON_SUBTRACTION, GetModuleHandle(NULL), NULL);

            CreateWindow(
                "BUTTON", "=",
                WS_VISIBLE | WS_CHILD,
                BUTTON_ROW_X * 4 + ROW_GAP, BUTTON_ROW_Y * 3, BUTTON_WIDTH, BUTTON_HEIGHT * 2 + 3,
                hwnd, (HMENU) IDC_BUTTON_EQUAL, GetModuleHandle(NULL), NULL);

            CreateWindow(
                "BUTTON", "C",
                WS_VISIBLE | WS_CHILD,
                BUTTON_ROW_X * 0 + ROW_GAP, BUTTON_ROW_Y * 4, BUTTON_WIDTH, BUTTON_HEIGHT,
                hwnd, (HMENU) IDC_BUTTON_CLEAR, GetModuleHandle(NULL), NULL);

            CreateWindow(
                "BUTTON", "0",
                WS_VISIBLE | WS_CHILD,
                BUTTON_ROW_X * 1 + ROW_GAP, BUTTON_ROW_Y * 4, BUTTON_WIDTH, BUTTON_HEIGHT,
                hwnd, (HMENU) IDC_BUTTON_ZERO, GetModuleHandle(NULL), NULL);

            CreateWindow(
                "BUTTON", ".",
                WS_VISIBLE | WS_CHILD,
                BUTTON_ROW_X * 2 + ROW_GAP, BUTTON_ROW_Y * 4, BUTTON_WIDTH, BUTTON_HEIGHT,
                hwnd, (HMENU) IDC_BUTTON_DECIMAL, GetModuleHandle(NULL), NULL);

            CreateWindow(
                "BUTTON", "+",
                WS_VISIBLE | WS_CHILD,
                BUTTON_ROW_X * 3 + ROW_GAP, BUTTON_ROW_Y * 4, BUTTON_WIDTH, BUTTON_HEIGHT,
                hwnd, (HMENU) IDC_BUTTON_ADDITION, GetModuleHandle(NULL), NULL);
        }
        break;
        case WM_COMMAND:
            if (HIWORD(wParam) == BN_CLICKED) {
                switch (LOWORD(wParam)) {
                    case IDC_BUTTON_ZERO:
                        InsertStringNumber('0', strValue);
                        CalculateOperand();
                        SetWindowText(hwndStatic, strValue);
                    break;
                    case IDC_BUTTON_ONE:
                        InsertStringNumber('1', strValue);
                        CalculateOperand();
                        SetWindowText(hwndStatic, strValue);
                    break;
                    case IDC_BUTTON_TWO:
                        InsertStringNumber('2', strValue);
                        CalculateOperand();
                        SetWindowText(hwndStatic, strValue);
                    break;
                    case IDC_BUTTON_THREE:
                        InsertStringNumber('3', strValue);
                        CalculateOperand();
                        SetWindowText(hwndStatic, strValue);
                    break;
                    case IDC_BUTTON_FOUR:
                        InsertStringNumber('4', strValue);
                        CalculateOperand();
                        SetWindowText(hwndStatic, strValue);
                    break;
                    case IDC_BUTTON_FIVE:
                        InsertStringNumber('5', strValue);
                        CalculateOperand();
                        SetWindowText(hwndStatic, strValue);                    
                    break;
                    case IDC_BUTTON_SIX:
                        InsertStringNumber('6', strValue);
                        CalculateOperand();
                        SetWindowText(hwndStatic, strValue);
                    break;
                    case IDC_BUTTON_SEVEN:
                        InsertStringNumber('7', strValue);
                        CalculateOperand();
                        SetWindowText(hwndStatic, strValue);
                    break;
                    case IDC_BUTTON_EIGHT:
                        InsertStringNumber('8', strValue);
                        CalculateOperand();
                        SetWindowText(hwndStatic, strValue);
                    break;
                    case IDC_BUTTON_NINE:
                        InsertStringNumber('9', strValue);
                        CalculateOperand();
                        SetWindowText(hwndStatic, strValue);
                    break;
                    case IDC_BUTTON_ADDITION:
                        if (!FinalCalcFlag)
                            CalculateDoubleResult();
                        OperatorType = ADD;
                        InsertOperator('+', strValue);
                        SetWindowText(hwndStatic, strValue);
                    break;
                    case IDC_BUTTON_SUBTRACTION:
                        if (!FinalCalcFlag)
                            CalculateDoubleResult();
                        OperatorType = SUB;
                        InsertOperator('-', strValue);
                        SetWindowText(hwndStatic, strValue);
                    break;
                    case IDC_BUTTON_MULTIPLICATION:
                        if (!FinalCalcFlag)
                            CalculateDoubleResult();
                        OperatorType = MUL;
                        InsertOperator('x', strValue);
                        SetWindowText(hwndStatic, strValue);
                    break;
                    case IDC_BUTTON_DIVISION:
                        if (!FinalCalcFlag)
                            CalculateDoubleResult();
                        OperatorType = DIV;
                        InsertOperator('/', strValue);
                        SetWindowText(hwndStatic, strValue);
                    break;
                    case IDC_BUTTON_NEGATIVE:
                        if (!OperatorFlag)
                            ValueConversion();
                        SetWindowText(hwndStatic, strValue);
                    break;
                    case IDC_BUTTON_EQUAL:
                        if (!FinalCalcFlag && !FinalValueConversion) {
                            CalculateDoubleResult();
                            CalculateStringResult();
                        }
                        SetWindowText(hwndStatic, strValue);
                    break;
                    case IDC_BUTTON_DECIMAL:
                        InsertDecimalPoint();
                        SetWindowText(hwndStatic, strValue);
                    break;
                    case IDC_BUTTON_CLEAR:
                        Reset();
                        SetWindowText(hwndStatic, strValue);
                    break;
                    case IDC_BUTTON_DEL:
                        if (FinalCalcFlag)
                            Reset();
                        DeleteStringNumber(strValue);
                        CalculateOperand();
                        SetWindowText(hwndStatic, strValue);
                    break;
                }
            }
        break;
        case WM_CLOSE:
            DestroyWindow(hwnd);
        break;
        case WM_DESTROY:
            PostQuitMessage(0);
        break;
        default:
            return DefWindowProc(hwnd, message, wParam, lParam);
    }
    return 0;
}

void InsertStringNumber(char Value, char *strValue)
{
    if (FinalCalcFlag)
        Reset();

    OperatorFlag = false;

    if (DecimalFlag) {
        if (NumDigits < MAX_DIGITS+1) {
            strValue[NumDigits++] = Value;
            strValue[NumDigits] = '\0';
        }
    } else {
        if (NumDigits < MAX_DIGITS) {
            strValue[NumDigits++] = Value;
            strValue[NumDigits] = '\0';
        }
    }
}

void DeleteStringNumber(char *strValue)
{
    if (FinalCalcFlag == false && OperatorFlag == false) {
        if (strValue[--NumDigits] == '.')
            DecimalFlag = false;
        if (NumDigits < 1) {
            strValue[0] = '0';
            NumDigits = 0;
        }
        else
            strValue[NumDigits] = '\0';
    }
}

void InsertDecimalPoint(void)
{
    if (!DecimalFlag) {
        if (NumDigits == 0) {
            InsertStringNumber('0', strValue);
            InsertStringNumber('.', strValue);
        } else
            InsertStringNumber('.', strValue);
        DecimalFlag = true;
    }
}

void ValueConversion(void)
{
    if (FinalCalcFlag) {
        FinalValueConversion = true;
        LeftOperand *= -1;
        ChangeNumDigits(LeftOperand);
        gcvt(LeftOperand, MAX_DIGITS, strValue);
    } else {
        if (OperandType == LEFT) {
            LeftOperand *= -1;
            ChangeNumDigits(LeftOperand);
            gcvt(LeftOperand, MAX_DIGITS, strValue);
        } 
        if (OperandType == RIGHT) {
            RightOperand *= -1;
            ChangeNumDigits(RightOperand);
            gcvt(RightOperand, MAX_DIGITS, strValue);
        }       
    }
    RemoveStringDecimal();
}

void InsertOperator(char Value, char *strValue)
{
    ChangeOperand();
    FinalCalcFlag = false;
    FinalValueConversion = false;

    if (LeftOperand == 0) {
        strValue[0] = '0';
        strValue[1] = ' ';
        strValue[2] = Value;
        strValue[3] = '\0';
    } else {
        gcvt(LeftOperand, MAX_DIGITS, strValue);
        RemoveStringDecimal();
        strValue += sprintf(strValue, "%s %c", strValue, Value);
    }
    OperatorFlag = true;
}

void ChangeOperand(void)
{
    OperandType = RIGHT;
    NumDigits = 0;
    DecimalFlag = false;
}

void CalculateOperand()
{
    if (OperandType == LEFT) {
        LeftOperand = atof(strValue);
    } else {
        RightOperand = atof(strValue);
    }
}

void CalculateDoubleResult()
{
    if (!OperatorFlag) {
        if (OperatorType == ADD)
            LeftOperand += RightOperand;
        if (OperatorType == SUB)
            LeftOperand -= RightOperand;
        if (OperatorType == MUL)
            LeftOperand *= RightOperand;
        if (OperatorType == DIV)
            LeftOperand /= RightOperand;
    }
}

void CalculateStringResult()
{
    gcvt(LeftOperand, MAX_DIGITS, strValue);
    RemoveStringDecimal();
    FinalCalcFlag = true;
}

void Reset(void)
{
    strValue[0] = '0';
    strValue[1] = '\0';

    // Global vars
    OperatorType = ADD;
    OperandType = LEFT;
    NumDigits = 0;
    LeftOperand = 0;
    RightOperand = 0;

    // Flags
    DecimalFlag = false;
    OperatorFlag = false;
    ContinueCalcFlag = false;
    FinalCalcFlag = false;
    FinalValueConversion = false;
}

void ChangeNumDigits(double Operand)
{
    if (Operand < 0)
        ++NumDigits;
    if (Operand > 0)
        --NumDigits;
}

void RemoveStringDecimal(void)
{
    char *PtrStrValue = strValue;
    while (*PtrStrValue) {
        PtrStrValue++;
    }
    if (*(PtrStrValue-1) == '.') {
        *(PtrStrValue-1) = '\0';
    }
}

main.h

#define MAX_DIGITS 15

#define CALC_HEIGHT 156
#define CALC_WIDTH 211

#define ROW_GAP 1

#define RESULT_X 1
#define RESULT_Y 1
#define RESULT_HEIGHT 22 
#define RESULT_WIDTH 196

#define BUTTON_ROW_X 40
#define BUTTON_ROW_Y 25
#define BUTTON_HEIGHT 22
#define BUTTON_WIDTH 39

#define IDC_STATIC_RESULT 101
#define IDC_BUTTON_SEVEN 201
#define IDC_BUTTON_EIGHT 202
#define IDC_BUTTON_NINE 203
#define IDC_BUTTON_NEGATIVE 204
#define IDC_BUTTON_DEL 205
#define IDC_BUTTON_FOUR 206
#define IDC_BUTTON_FIVE 207
#define IDC_BUTTON_SIX 208
#define IDC_BUTTON_MULTIPLICATION 209
#define IDC_BUTTON_DIVISION 210
#define IDC_BUTTON_ONE 211
#define IDC_BUTTON_TWO 212
#define IDC_BUTTON_THREE 213
#define IDC_BUTTON_SUBTRACTION 214
#define IDC_BUTTON_EQUAL 215
#define IDC_BUTTON_CLEAR 216
#define IDC_BUTTON_ZERO 217
#define IDC_BUTTON_DECIMAL 218
#define IDC_BUTTON_ADDITION 219

#define ADD 1
#define SUB 2
#define MUL 3
#define DIV 4
#define LEFT 1
#define RIGHT 2
```
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2
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It looks like something from the early 90s! There's a lot to dislike about the "style" including Hungarian notation falling out of favor, but I'll pass on that since this subgenere might have its own unique standards.

But I would like to point out that your code is very repetitive. Your button handlers are all identical except for the character value in one parameter. Try making a single block that works for all of them, knowing that the message codes are assigned in consecutive order so you can derive the character from the code.

Have you considered using a dialog box instead of explicit creation of every button? That reads a data resource that encodes all the controls and positions and creates them all for you. If not, create your buttons with a loop containing but a single CreateWindow call, and the parameters that change are computed as part of the loop or read from an array that only lists those things that change (such as the position).

In short, don't repeat yourself.

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2
  • \$\begingroup\$ Thank you for the feedback. To my understanding, the Hungarian notation conventions have become a common coding practice in Win32 programming. \$\endgroup\$
    – rieger60
    May 13 at 16:49
  • \$\begingroup\$ I wouldn't say "have become"; rather that is predates Win32 and was used in original Windows (16-bit) with rather primitive C compilers with poor type checking in the language and sloppy type declarations in the API. In fact, in Win32 the "traditional" names for some parameters doesn't match anymore! For C++, see NL.5. \$\endgroup\$
    – JDługosz
    May 14 at 14:23
2
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Bug

sprintf(strValue, "%s %c", strValue, Value); is undefined behavior (UB) in C99 due to restrict does not allow s to overlap the ... arguments.

int sprintf(char * restrict s, const char * restrict format, ...);

... and UB with If copying occurs between strings that overlap, the behavior is undefined.

Alternative

// strValue += sprintf(strValue, "%s %c", strValue, Value);

strValue += strlen(strValue);
sprintf(strValue, " %c", Value);
// No need to add more to the pointer as it is not used later in code.

// OR via compound literal - available since C99.  Old MS C compilers are C89-ish.
strcat(strValue, (char [3]){' ', Value});
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