I have written some Go code that produces the output I would like, but I am unsure if the code itself "smells" good. I would like to know if it contains any anti-patterns, exemplifies bad practices, or lacks the proper idioms one would expect to see in a program written in Golang. Details of the program follow.

I have recently started programming in Go, and have been looking for ways to practice my skills. I come from a Python background and lately have been reading up on compiler design. So in an attempt to practice both of these nascent interests, this morning I wrote a bit of Go code to lex a string into a series of tokens. The lexer recognizes numbers, common whitespace characters, and the binary operators for addition and subtraction.

I based this lexer on an example of creating a tokenizer I found in the Python documentation for the re (regex) library. Thus my code uses the regexp package of the Go standard library. I plan on segmenting the code into separate files / packages, but for now I have it all in one file for readability.

The code itself is below. Specific questions are contained in the comments, but please share any issues you find with the code. I am liking the imperative and "simple" style of Go, and would like to make sure I do not start any poor coding habits when writing Go code in the future.

Here is a Go Playground link to the code as well: https://play.golang.org/p/jfuWRyOipMM

package main

import (


// Is it best practice to enumerate string constants like this?
const (
    Plus    = "Plus"
    Minus   = "Minus"
    Number  = "Number"
    Skip    = "Skip"
    Newline = "Newline"

// Token struct for keeping track of tokens
type Token struct {
    Type string
    // How to best signify that a value could be a string or an int?
    Value  interface{}
    Line   int
    Column int

// Tokenize converts a string into a slice of tokens
func Tokenize(text string) []Token {

    // Is this mapping a good way of keeping track of token patterns?
    groupNamesPatterns := map[string]string{
        Plus:    `\+`,
        Minus:   `-`,
        Number:  `[\d]+`,
        Skip:    `[ \t]`,
        Newline: `\n`,

    // Create the Regex pattern with all the named groups
    var patternStrings []string
    for groupName, pattern := range groupNamesPatterns {
        groupPattern := fmt.Sprintf(`(?P<%s>%s)`, groupName, pattern)
        patternStrings = append(patternStrings, groupPattern)
    pattern := regexp.MustCompile(strings.Join(patternStrings, "|"))
    groupNames := pattern.SubexpNames()

    // Create the tokens list
    var tokens []Token
    line := 1
    column := 0
    matches := pattern.FindAllStringSubmatch(text, -1)
    for _, m := range matches {
        // Iterate through match group names to find the name of the
        // matched group
        for i, matchedText := range m[1:] {
            if matchedText != "" {
                groupName := groupNames[i+1]
                if groupName == Newline {
                    line += 1
                    column = 0
                if groupName != Skip {
                    t := Token{groupName, "", line, column}
                    // Set the value of the token to either the parsed string
                    // or raw string
                    if parsed, err := strconv.Atoi(matchedText); err != nil {
                        t.Value = matchedText
                    } else {
                        t.Value = parsed
                    tokens = append(tokens, t)
                column += len(matchedText)
    return tokens

func main() {
    // Example of tokenizing string spanning multiple lines
    text := `
+ 2
- 3`
    tokens := Tokenize(text)
    for _, token := range tokens {
        fmt.Printf("%#v\n", token)


1 Answer 1


String Constants

An alternative way for representing your constants if you don't need their string representations would be to use the iota identifier built into golang to assign auto-incrementing enumerations like so:

const (
    Plus    = iota // 0
    Minus          // 1
    Number         // 2
    Skip           // 3
    Newline        // 4

This is actually how the go tokens are defined: https://github.com/golang/go/blob/master/src/go/token/token.go

You may however want these string values to use later on in a different part of your lexer depending on what you do.

How to best signify that a value could be a string or an int?

In my opinion, you really shouldn't be trying to store different types in the same variable. Go isn't like Python in this regard, and on that note, I would try to avoid the use of the empty interface interface{} unless it is truly necessary/adds value to the application (a good example of it adding value is in the stretchr/testify package for their assert functions).

For this particular use case here are some alternatives I can think of:

  • More complex: Store the underlying value as a slice of bytes ([]byte)
  • Simpler: Accept the performance penalty and just use strings (maybe it's a simplification you use, for now, then you can refactor to use bytes later)

In both of these cases, you would convert back to the original value when needed based upon the type of the token (which it looks like you are already storing, isn't that convenient?).

Is this mapping a good way of keeping track of token patterns?

Seems perfectly good to me! 😁

  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Thanks for the advice! I was aware of using iota for emulating enums, but I think I would prefer to use string literal values for now. Thanks also for pointing out alternatives for how I'm storing token values. I've extended this project to be a 2D ASCII graph parser (the readme needs updating), and am no longer storing integer values, so think I'll strictly be storing string values for now. \$\endgroup\$ Mar 20, 2021 at 16:54
  • \$\begingroup\$ My comment was going to be that it might be simpler to reason about to use a lexer that loops over the characters instead of a regex-based lexer. However, I see you've already done that over at the repo - nice! I added a few commits on your commit over there. \$\endgroup\$
    – Ben Hoyt
    Apr 11, 2021 at 23:24

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