function duplicatesNumber(text) {
            var counts = {};
            let textLowered = text.toLowerCase();
            textLowered.split("").forEach(function (x) {
                counts[x] = (counts[x] || 0) + 1;
            return Object.entries(counts).filter(arr => arr[1] > 1).length

        function duplicateCount(text) {
            return text.toLowerCase().split('').filter(function (val, i, arr) {
                return arr.indexOf(val) !== i && arr.lastIndexOf(val) === i;
         let start = performance.now();
        let end = performance.now();
        console.log("Function-B: "+ (end-start));
         let start1 = performance.now();
        let end1 = performance.now();
        console.log("Function-A: "+ (end1-start1))

  • I have two functions they both do the same thing. Return the number of duplicates.
  • My question is about their performances. I have just started to learn data structures and algorithms in javascript. I covered Big O'Notation. But I didn't get it correctly I guess.
  • Since Function-A has for each method which means it is O(n) clearly. Isn't that mean Function-A should be slower than the second one? How can be Function-A is faster than Function-B?

1 Answer 1


Time Complexity

  • Function A cost \$\mathcal{O}\left(n\right)\$
    • toLowerCase, split cost \$\mathcal{O}\left(n\right)\$
    • forEach cost \$\mathcal{O}\left(n\right)\$
    • Object.entries, filter cost \$\mathcal{O}\left(n\right)\$
      • counts[x] read / write may cost \$\mathcal{O}\left(1\right)\$ on average
  • Function B cost cost \$\mathcal{O}\left(n^2\right)\$
    • toLowerCase, split still cost \$\mathcal{O}\left(n\right)\$
    • filter cost \$\mathcal{O}\left(n^2\right)\$
      • indexOf, lastIndexOf cost \$\mathcal{O}\left(n\right)\$
      • filter repeat above operation \$\mathcal{O}\left(n\right)\$ times, thus \$\mathcal{O}\left(n\cdot n\right)\$

Time consume most occurred in loops. Not only forEach, fliter, but also toLowerCase, split, indexOf are loops. You didn't count the performance of nested loops correctly.

Also, notice that big-O notation is targeted to describe how fast the time consume increase when size of input increase. It not necessarily means an algorithm with better big-O notation will always be faster.


  • Do not use str.split(''), use [...str] if you can. The split one won't handle some unicode points correctly. For example, [...'𰻝𰻝面'].length is 3 but '𰻝𰻝面'.split('').length is 5.
  • Use Map if you can (no need to support old browsers). Object is not an ideal way to use as a dictionary. Only if you want to keep ES5 support, you may use Object.create(null) instead.
  • You may count how many entries has at least count 2 during iteration by tracking if count[x] == 2 after increase. So there is no need to iterate Object.entries later.
  • \$\begingroup\$ Very clean and informative answer. I appreciate that! \$\endgroup\$ Commented Feb 7, 2021 at 13:05

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