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https://leetcode.com/problems/insert-delete-getrandom-o1/

please comment on performance

Implement the RandomizedSet class:

bool insert(int val) Inserts an item val into the set if not present. Returns true if the item was not present, false otherwise. bool remove(int val) Removes an item val from the set if present. Returns true if the item was present, false otherwise. int getRandom() Returns a random element from the current set of elements (it's guaranteed that at least one element exists when this method is called). Each element must have the same probability of being returned. Follow up: Could you implement the functions of the class with each function works in average O(1) time?

Example 1:

Input ["RandomizedSet", "insert", "remove", "insert", "getRandom", "remove", "insert", "getRandom"] [[], [1], [2], [2], [], [1], [2], []] Output [null, true, false, true, 2, true, false, 2]

Explanation RandomizedSet randomizedSet = new RandomizedSet(); randomizedSet.insert(1); // Inserts 1 to the set. Returns true as 1 was inserted successfully. randomizedSet.remove(2); // Returns false as 2 does not exist in the set. randomizedSet.insert(2); // Inserts 2 to the set, returns true. Set now contains [1,2]. randomizedSet.getRandom(); // getRandom() should return either 1 or 2 randomly. randomizedSet.remove(1); // Removes 1 from the set, returns true. Set now contains [2]. randomizedSet.insert(2); // 2 was already in the set, so return false. randomizedSet.getRandom(); // Since 2 is the only number in the set, getRandom() will always return 2.

Constraints:

\$-2^{31} <= val <= 2^{31} - 1\$. At most \$10^5\$ calls will be made to insert, remove, and getRandom. There will be at least one element in the data structure when getRandom is called.

public class RandomizedSet {
    
     private HashSet<int> _set;
        /** Initialize your data structure here. */
        public RandomizedSet()
        {
            _set = new HashSet<int>();
        }

        /** Inserts a value to the set. Returns true if the set did not already contain the specified element. */
        public bool Insert(int val)
        {
            if (_set.Contains(val))
            {
                return false;
            }
            _set.Add(val);
            return true;
        }

        /** Removes a value from the set. Returns true if the set contained the specified element. */
        public bool Remove(int val)
        {
            if (_set.Contains(val))
            {
                _set.Remove(val);
                return true;
            }
            return false;
        }

        /** Get a random element from the set. */
        public int GetRandom()
        {
            Random rand = new Random();
            int key = rand.Next(_set.Count);
            return _set.ElementAt(key);
        }
}

/**
 * Your RandomizedSet object will be instantiated and called as such:
 * RandomizedSet obj = new RandomizedSet();
 * bool param_1 = obj.Insert(val);
 * bool param_2 = obj.Remove(val);
 * int param_3 = obj.GetRandom();
 */
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2 Answers 2

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  • The HashSet<int> won't be changed hence make it readonly.
  • Instead of calling Contains() prior to the call to Add(), if this evaluates to false, can be simplified to just return _set.Add(val); because the Add() method returns false if the value is allready in the HashSet. Reference
  • Instead of calling Contains() prior to calling Remove() can be simplified as well to just return _set.Remove(val); because Remove() will return false if the item isn't in the HashSet. Reference
  • Calling GetRandom() in repeatedly short order may result in the same element because the Seed of a created Random in .NET framework is based on the current timestamp. It is better to create a class-level Random to be used.

Summing up leads to

public class RandomizedSet {
    
    private readonly HashSet<int> _set;
    /** Initialize your data structure here. */
    public RandomizedSet()
    {
        _set = new HashSet<int>();
    }

    /** Inserts a value to the set. Returns true if the set did not already contain the specified element. */
    public bool Insert(int val)
    {
        return _set.Add(val);
    }

    /** Removes a value from the set. Returns true if the set contained the specified element. */
    public bool Remove(int val)
    {
        return _set.Remove(val);
    }

    private readonly Random rand = new Random();
    /** Get a random element from the set. */
    public int GetRandom()
    {
        int key = rand.Next(_set.Count);
        return _set.ElementAt(key);
    }
}
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GetRandom() Complexity

HashSet<T> does not support lookup by index so ElementAt needs to iterate until the requested element is reached. That requires O(n) steps not O(1).

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