3
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Recently I was learning to code using PyQt5 and Python. I was doing a school project on Calculator. Here is my graphic class:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

# Form implementation generated from reading ui file 'calculator.ui'
#
# Created by: PyQt5 UI code generator 5.15.1
#
# WARNING: Any manual changes made to this file will be lost when pyuic5 is
# run again.  Do not edit this file unless you know what you are doing.


from PyQt5 import QtCore, QtGui, QtWidgets


class Ui_Calculator(object):
    def setupUi(self, Calculator):
        Calculator.setObjectName("Calculator")
        Calculator.resize(240, 361)
        font = QtGui.QFont()
        font.setFamily("Comic Sans MS")
        Calculator.setFont(font)
        Calculator.setLayoutDirection(QtCore.Qt.LeftToRight)
        self.centralwidget = QtWidgets.QWidget(Calculator)
        self.centralwidget.setObjectName("centralwidget")
        self.Display = QtWidgets.QLabel(self.centralwidget)
        self.Display.setGeometry(QtCore.QRect(0, 0, 241, 61))
        font = QtGui.QFont()
        font.setFamily("Lucida Console")
        font.setPointSize(16)
        font.setBold(False)
        font.setWeight(50)
        self.Display.setFont(font)
        self.Display.setLayoutDirection(QtCore.Qt.RightToLeft)
        self.Display.setStyleSheet("QLabel {\n"
"  qproperty-alignment: \'AlignVCenter | AlignRight\';\n"
"  border: 1px solid gray;\n"
"}\n"
"\n"
"background-color : white;")
        self.Display.setAlignment(QtCore.Qt.AlignRight|QtCore.Qt.AlignTrailing|QtCore.Qt.AlignVCenter)
        self.Display.setObjectName("Display")
        self.Clear = QtWidgets.QPushButton(self.centralwidget)
        self.Clear.setGeometry(QtCore.QRect(0, 60, 61, 61))
        font = QtGui.QFont()
        font.setFamily("Lucida Console")
        font.setPointSize(12)
        self.Clear.setFont(font)
        self.Clear.setStyleSheet("QPushButton {\n"
"  background-color: rgb(215, 215, 215);\n"
"  border: 1px solid gray;\n"
"}\n"
"QPushButton:pressed {\n"
"    background-color: qlineargradient(x1: 0, y1: 0, x2: 0, y2: 1,\n"
"                                      stop: 0 #BEBEBE, stop: 1 #D7D7D7);\n"
"}")
        self.Clear.setObjectName("Clear")
        self.btndiv = QtWidgets.QPushButton(self.centralwidget)
        self.btndiv.setGeometry(QtCore.QRect(180, 60, 61, 61))
        font = QtGui.QFont()
        font.setFamily("Lucida Console")
        font.setPointSize(12)
        self.btndiv.setFont(font)
        self.btndiv.setStyleSheet("QPushButton {\n"
"  background-color: rgb(255, 151, 57);\n"
"  color: white; \n"
"  border: 1px solid gray;\n"
"}\n"
"\n"
"QPushButton:pressed {\n"
"    background-color: qlineargradient(x1: 0, y1: 0, x2: 0, y2: 1,\n"
"                                      stop: 0 #FF7832, stop: 1 #FF9739);\n"
"}")
        self.btndiv.setObjectName("btndiv")
        self.btnpercent = QtWidgets.QPushButton(self.centralwidget)
        self.btnpercent.setGeometry(QtCore.QRect(120, 60, 61, 61))
        font = QtGui.QFont()
        font.setFamily("Lucida Console")
        font.setPointSize(12)
        self.btnpercent.setFont(font)
        self.btnpercent.setStyleSheet("QPushButton {\n"
"  background-color: rgb(215, 215, 215);\n"
"  border: 1px solid gray;\n"
"}\n"
"QPushButton:pressed {\n"
"    background-color: qlineargradient(x1: 0, y1: 0, x2: 0, y2: 1,\n"
"                                      stop: 0 #BEBEBE, stop: 1 #D7D7D7);\n"
"}")
        self.btnpercent.setObjectName("btnpercent")
        self.btnneg = QtWidgets.QPushButton(self.centralwidget)
        self.btnneg.setGeometry(QtCore.QRect(60, 60, 61, 61))
        font = QtGui.QFont()
        font.setFamily("Lucida Console")
        font.setPointSize(12)
        self.btnneg.setFont(font)
        self.btnneg.setStyleSheet("QPushButton {\n"
"  background-color: rgb(215, 215, 215);\n"
"  border: 1px solid gray;\n"
"}\n"
"QPushButton:pressed {\n"
"    background-color: qlineargradient(x1: 0, y1: 0, x2: 0, y2: 1,\n"
"                                      stop: 0 #BEBEBE, stop: 1 #D7D7D7);\n"
"}")
        self.btnneg.setObjectName("btnneg")
        self.btn8 = QtWidgets.QPushButton(self.centralwidget)
        self.btn8.setGeometry(QtCore.QRect(60, 120, 61, 61))
        font = QtGui.QFont()
        font.setFamily("Lucida Console")
        font.setPointSize(12)
        self.btn8.setFont(font)
        self.btn8.setStyleSheet("QPushButton {\n"
"   border: 1px solid gray;\n"
"}\n"
"QPushButton:pressed {\n"
"    background-color: qlineargradient(x1: 0, y1: 0, x2: 0, y2: 1,\n"
"                                      stop: 0 #dadbde, stop: 1 #f6f7fa);\n"
"}")
        self.btn8.setObjectName("btn8")
        self.btn7 = QtWidgets.QPushButton(self.centralwidget)
        self.btn7.setGeometry(QtCore.QRect(0, 120, 61, 61))
        font = QtGui.QFont()
        font.setFamily("Lucida Console")
        font.setPointSize(12)
        self.btn7.setFont(font)
        self.btn7.setStyleSheet("QPushButton {\n"
"   border: 1px solid gray;\n"
"}\n"
"QPushButton:pressed {\n"
"    background-color: qlineargradient(x1: 0, y1: 0, x2: 0, y2: 1,\n"
"                                      stop: 0 #dadbde, stop: 1 #f6f7fa);\n"
"}")
        self.btn7.setObjectName("btn7")
        self.btnmul = QtWidgets.QPushButton(self.centralwidget)
        self.btnmul.setGeometry(QtCore.QRect(180, 120, 61, 61))
        font = QtGui.QFont()
        font.setFamily("Lucida Console")
        font.setPointSize(12)
        self.btnmul.setFont(font)
        self.btnmul.setStyleSheet("QPushButton {\n"
"  background-color: rgb(255, 151, 57);\n"
"  color: white; \n"
"  border: 1px solid gray;\n"
"}\n"
"\n"
"QPushButton:pressed {\n"
"    background-color: qlineargradient(x1: 0, y1: 0, x2: 0, y2: 1,\n"
"                                      stop: 0 #FF7832, stop: 1 #FF9739);\n"
"}")
        self.btnmul.setObjectName("btnmul")
        self.btn9 = QtWidgets.QPushButton(self.centralwidget)
        self.btn9.setGeometry(QtCore.QRect(120, 120, 61, 61))
        font = QtGui.QFont()
        font.setFamily("Lucida Console")
        font.setPointSize(12)
        self.btn9.setFont(font)
        self.btn9.setStyleSheet("QPushButton {\n"
"   border: 1px solid gray;\n"
"}\n"
"QPushButton:pressed {\n"
"    background-color: qlineargradient(x1: 0, y1: 0, x2: 0, y2: 1,\n"
"                                      stop: 0 #dadbde, stop: 1 #f6f7fa);\n"
"}")
        self.btn9.setObjectName("btn9")
        self.btn5 = QtWidgets.QPushButton(self.centralwidget)
        self.btn5.setGeometry(QtCore.QRect(60, 180, 61, 61))
        font = QtGui.QFont()
        font.setFamily("Lucida Console")
        font.setPointSize(12)
        self.btn5.setFont(font)
        self.btn5.setStyleSheet("QPushButton {\n"
"   border: 1px solid gray;\n"
"}\n"
"QPushButton:pressed {\n"
"    background-color: qlineargradient(x1: 0, y1: 0, x2: 0, y2: 1,\n"
"                                      stop: 0 #dadbde, stop: 1 #f6f7fa);\n"
"}")
        self.btn5.setObjectName("btn5")
        self.btn4 = QtWidgets.QPushButton(self.centralwidget)
        self.btn4.setGeometry(QtCore.QRect(0, 180, 61, 61))
        font = QtGui.QFont()
        font.setFamily("Lucida Console")
        font.setPointSize(12)
        self.btn4.setFont(font)
        self.btn4.setStyleSheet("QPushButton {\n"
"   border: 1px solid gray;\n"
"}\n"
"QPushButton:pressed {\n"
"    background-color: qlineargradient(x1: 0, y1: 0, x2: 0, y2: 1,\n"
"                                      stop: 0 #dadbde, stop: 1 #f6f7fa);\n"
"}")
        self.btn4.setObjectName("btn4")
        self.btnsub = QtWidgets.QPushButton(self.centralwidget)
        self.btnsub.setGeometry(QtCore.QRect(180, 180, 61, 61))
        font = QtGui.QFont()
        font.setFamily("Lucida Console")
        font.setPointSize(12)
        self.btnsub.setFont(font)
        self.btnsub.setStyleSheet("QPushButton {\n"
"  background-color: rgb(255, 151, 57);\n"
"  color: white; \n"
"  border: 1px solid gray;\n"
"}\n"
"\n"
"QPushButton:pressed {\n"
"    background-color: qlineargradient(x1: 0, y1: 0, x2: 0, y2: 1,\n"
"                                      stop: 0 #FF7832, stop: 1 #FF9739);\n"
"}")
        self.btnsub.setObjectName("btnsub")
        self.btn6 = QtWidgets.QPushButton(self.centralwidget)
        self.btn6.setGeometry(QtCore.QRect(120, 180, 61, 61))
        font = QtGui.QFont()
        font.setFamily("Lucida Console")
        font.setPointSize(12)
        self.btn6.setFont(font)
        self.btn6.setStyleSheet("QPushButton {\n"
"   border: 1px solid gray;\n"
"}\n"
"QPushButton:pressed {\n"
"    background-color: qlineargradient(x1: 0, y1: 0, x2: 0, y2: 1,\n"
"                                      stop: 0 #dadbde, stop: 1 #f6f7fa);\n"
"}")
        self.btn6.setObjectName("btn6")
        self.btn0 = QtWidgets.QPushButton(self.centralwidget)
        self.btn0.setGeometry(QtCore.QRect(0, 300, 121, 61))
        font = QtGui.QFont()
        font.setFamily("Lucida Console")
        font.setPointSize(12)
        self.btn0.setFont(font)
        self.btn0.setStyleSheet("QPushButton {\n"
"   border: 1px solid gray;\n"
"}\n"
"QPushButton:pressed {\n"
"    background-color: qlineargradient(x1: 0, y1: 0, x2: 0, y2: 1,\n"
"                                      stop: 0 #dadbde, stop: 1 #f6f7fa);\n"
"}")
        self.btn0.setObjectName("btn0")
        self.btndecimal = QtWidgets.QPushButton(self.centralwidget)
        self.btndecimal.setGeometry(QtCore.QRect(120, 300, 61, 61))
        font = QtGui.QFont()
        font.setFamily("Lucida Console")
        font.setPointSize(12)
        self.btndecimal.setFont(font)
        self.btndecimal.setStyleSheet("QPushButton {\n"
"  background-color: rgb(215, 215, 215);\n"
"  border: 1px solid gray;\n"
"}\n"
"QPushButton:pressed {\n"
"    background-color: qlineargradient(x1: 0, y1: 0, x2: 0, y2: 1,\n"
"                                      stop: 0 #BEBEBE, stop: 1 #D7D7D7);\n"
"}")
        self.btndecimal.setObjectName("btndecimal")
        self.btnequal = QtWidgets.QPushButton(self.centralwidget)
        self.btnequal.setGeometry(QtCore.QRect(180, 300, 61, 61))
        font = QtGui.QFont()
        font.setFamily("Lucida Console")
        font.setPointSize(12)
        self.btnequal.setFont(font)
        self.btnequal.setStyleSheet("QPushButton {\n"
"  background-color: rgb(255, 151, 57);\n"
"  color: white; \n"
"  border: 1px solid gray;\n"
"}\n"
"\n"
"QPushButton:pressed {\n"
"    background-color: qlineargradient(x1: 0, y1: 0, x2: 0, y2: 1,\n"
"                                      stop: 0 #FF7832, stop: 1 #FF9739);\n"
"}")
        self.btnequal.setObjectName("btnequal")
        self.btn3 = QtWidgets.QPushButton(self.centralwidget)
        self.btn3.setGeometry(QtCore.QRect(120, 240, 61, 61))
        font = QtGui.QFont()
        font.setFamily("Lucida Console")
        font.setPointSize(12)
        self.btn3.setFont(font)
        self.btn3.setStyleSheet("QPushButton {\n"
"   border: 1px solid gray;\n"
"}\n"
"QPushButton:pressed {\n"
"    background-color: qlineargradient(x1: 0, y1: 0, x2: 0, y2: 1,\n"
"                                      stop: 0 #dadbde, stop: 1 #f6f7fa);\n"
"}")
        self.btn3.setObjectName("btn3")
        self.btn2 = QtWidgets.QPushButton(self.centralwidget)
        self.btn2.setGeometry(QtCore.QRect(60, 240, 61, 61))
        font = QtGui.QFont()
        font.setFamily("Lucida Console")
        font.setPointSize(12)
        self.btn2.setFont(font)
        self.btn2.setStyleSheet("QPushButton {\n"
"   border: 1px solid gray;\n"
"}\n"
"QPushButton:pressed {\n"
"    background-color: qlineargradient(x1: 0, y1: 0, x2: 0, y2: 1,\n"
"                                      stop: 0 #dadbde, stop: 1 #f6f7fa);\n"
"}")
        self.btn2.setObjectName("btn2")
        self.btn1 = QtWidgets.QPushButton(self.centralwidget)
        self.btn1.setGeometry(QtCore.QRect(0, 240, 61, 61))
        font = QtGui.QFont()
        font.setFamily("Lucida Console")
        font.setPointSize(12)
        self.btn1.setFont(font)
        self.btn1.setStyleSheet("QPushButton {\n"
"   border: 1px solid gray;\n"
"}\n"
"QPushButton:pressed {\n"
"    background-color: qlineargradient(x1: 0, y1: 0, x2: 0, y2: 1,\n"
"                                      stop: 0 #dadbde, stop: 1 #f6f7fa);\n"
"}")
        self.btn1.setObjectName("btn1")
        self.btnplus = QtWidgets.QPushButton(self.centralwidget)
        self.btnplus.setGeometry(QtCore.QRect(180, 240, 61, 61))
        font = QtGui.QFont()
        font.setFamily("Lucida Console")
        font.setPointSize(12)
        self.btnplus.setFont(font)
        self.btnplus.setStyleSheet("QPushButton {\n"
"  background-color: rgb(255, 151, 57);\n"
"  color: white; \n"
"  border: 1px solid gray;\n"
"}\n"
"\n"
"QPushButton:pressed {\n"
"    background-color: qlineargradient(x1: 0, y1: 0, x2: 0, y2: 1,\n"
"                                      stop: 0 #FF7832, stop: 1 #FF9739);\n"
"}")

        self.setFixedSize(self.size())
        self.btnplus.setObjectName("btnplus")
        Calculator.setCentralWidget(self.centralwidget)

        self.retranslateUi(Calculator)
        QtCore.QMetaObject.connectSlotsByName(Calculator)

    def retranslateUi(self, Calculator):
        _translate = QtCore.QCoreApplication.translate
        Calculator.setWindowTitle(_translate("Calculator", "Calculator"))
        self.Display.setText(_translate("Calculator", "0"))
        self.Clear.setText(_translate("Calculator", "C"))
        self.btndiv.setText(_translate("Calculator", "/"))
        self.btnpercent.setText(_translate("Calculator", "%"))
        self.btnneg.setText(_translate("Calculator", "+/-"))
        self.btn8.setText(_translate("Calculator", "8"))
        self.btn7.setText(_translate("Calculator", "7"))
        self.btnmul.setText(_translate("Calculator", "X"))
        self.btn9.setText(_translate("Calculator", "9"))
        self.btn5.setText(_translate("Calculator", "5"))
        self.btn4.setText(_translate("Calculator", "4"))
        self.btnsub.setText(_translate("Calculator", "-"))
        self.btn6.setText(_translate("Calculator", "6"))
        self.btn0.setText(_translate("Calculator", "0"))
        self.btndecimal.setText(_translate("Calculator", "."))
        self.btnequal.setText(_translate("Calculator", "="))
        self.btn3.setText(_translate("Calculator", "3"))
        self.btn2.setText(_translate("Calculator", "2"))
        self.btn1.setText(_translate("Calculator", "1"))
        self.btnplus.setText(_translate("Calculator", "+"))


if __name__ == "__main__":
    import sys
    app = QtWidgets.QApplication(sys.argv)
    Calculator = QtWidgets.QMainWindow()
    ui = Ui_Calculator()
    ui.setupUi(Calculator)
    Calculator.show()
    sys.exit(app.exec_())

I added my operations on another file but the problem is coming when I am trying to do multiple operations. Also please help me make my code more shorter if possible. Here is the operations or the main.py file:

from PyQt5 import QtWidgets
from calculatorui import Ui_Calculator


class Calculator(QtWidgets.QMainWindow, Ui_Calculator):

    first_num = None
    second_num = 0
    user_enter_second_num = False

    def __init__(self):
        super().__init__()
        self.setupUi(self)

        # for the digits
        self.btn0.clicked.connect(self.digit_pressed)
        self.btn1.clicked.connect(self.digit_pressed)
        self.btn2.clicked.connect(self.digit_pressed)
        self.btn3.clicked.connect(self.digit_pressed)
        self.btn4.clicked.connect(self.digit_pressed)
        self.btn5.clicked.connect(self.digit_pressed)
        self.btn6.clicked.connect(self.digit_pressed)
        self.btn7.clicked.connect(self.digit_pressed)
        self.btn8.clicked.connect(self.digit_pressed)
        self.btn9.clicked.connect(self.digit_pressed)

        # For the decimal point
        self.btndecimal.clicked.connect(self.decimal_pressed)

        # For the unary operators
        self.btnpercent.clicked.connect(self.unary_press)
        self.btnneg.clicked.connect(self.unary_press)

        # Make binary operators ready to get checked
        self.btnplus.setCheckable(True)
        self.btnsub.setCheckable(True)
        self.btnmul.setCheckable(True)
        self.btndiv.setCheckable(True)

        # Binding the binary operators with their functions
        self.btnplus.clicked.connect(self.binary_operations)
        self.btnsub.clicked.connect(self.binary_operations)
        self.btnmul.clicked.connect(self.binary_operations)
        self.btndiv.clicked.connect(self.binary_operations)

        # Binding the equal button
        self.btnequal.clicked.connect(self.equal_operation)

        self.show()

    def digit_pressed(self):
        label = self.sender()

        if (self.btnplus.isChecked() or self.btnmul.isChecked() or self.btnsub.isChecked() or
                self.btndiv.isChecked()) and (not self.user_enter_second_num):
            new_label = format(float(label.text()), '.15g')
            self.user_enter_second_num = True

        else:
            if '.' in self.Display.text() and (label.text() == "0"):
                new_label = format(self.Display.text()+label.text(), '.15')
            else:
                new_label = format(float(self.Display.text() + label.text()), '.15g')

        if new_label == "inf":
            pass
        else:
            self.Display.setText(new_label)

    def decimal_pressed(self):
        label = self.Display.text()
        if "." in label:
            pass
        else:
            self.Display.setText(label + '.')

    def unary_press(self):
        label = self.sender()
        new_label = float(self.Display.text())

        if label.text() == "+/-":
            new_label *= -1
        else:
            # Check for % sign
            new_label *= 0.01

        label = format(new_label, '.15g')
        self.Display.setText(label)

    def binary_operations(self):
        button = self.sender()
        self.first_num = float(self.Display.text())
        button.setChecked(True)
        self.user_enter_second_num = False

    def equal_operation(self):
        self.second_num = float(self.Display.text())

        if self.btnplus.isChecked():
            label_number = self.first_num + self.second_num
            new_label = format(label_number, '.15g')
            self.Display.setText(new_label)
            self.btnplus.setChecked(False)

        elif self.btnsub.isChecked():
            label_number = self.first_num - self.second_num
            new_label = format(label_number, '.15g')
            self.Display.setText(new_label)
            self.btnsub.setChecked(False)

        elif self.btnmul.isChecked():
            label_number = self.first_num * self.second_num
            new_label = format(label_number, '.15g')
            self.Display.setText(new_label)
            self.btnmul.setChecked(False)

        elif self.btndiv.isChecked():
            label_number = self.first_num / self.second_num
            new_label = format(label_number, '.15g')
            self.Display.setText(new_label)
            self.btndiv.setChecked(False)

        else:
            pass

        self.user_enter_second_num = False


if __name__ == '__main__':
    import sys
    from PyQt5.QtWidgets import QApplication

    app = QApplication(sys.argv)
    calc = Calculator()
    sys.exit(app.exec_())

```
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1
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Not a lot of time on my hands, so this is not a comprehensive review but a few suggestions.

This:

# for the digits
self.btn0.clicked.connect(self.digit_pressed)
self.btn1.clicked.connect(self.digit_pressed)
self.btn2.clicked.connect(self.digit_pressed)
self.btn3.clicked.connect(self.digit_pressed)
self.btn4.clicked.connect(self.digit_pressed)
self.btn5.clicked.connect(self.digit_pressed)
self.btn6.clicked.connect(self.digit_pressed)
self.btn7.clicked.connect(self.digit_pressed)
self.btn8.clicked.connect(self.digit_pressed)
self.btn9.clicked.connect(self.digit_pressed)

Could become:

# and so on...
buttons = (self.btn0, self.btn1, self.btn2)
for button in buttons:
    button.clicked.connect(self.digit_pressed)

There is some repetitive code, that can be shortened a bit. For example in equal_operation:

if self.btnplus.isChecked():
    label_number = self.first_num + self.second_num
    new_label = format(label_number, '.15g')
    self.Display.setText(new_label)
    self.btnplus.setChecked(False)

elif self.btnsub.isChecked():
    label_number = self.first_num - self.second_num
    new_label = format(label_number, '.15g')
    self.Display.setText(new_label)
    self.btnsub.setChecked(False)
...

It can be shortened like this basically:

if self.btnplus.isChecked():
    label_number = self.first_num + self.second_num
elif self.btnsub.isChecked():
    label_number = self.first_num - self.second_num
elif self.btnmul.isChecked():
    label_number = self.first_num * self.second_num
elif self.btndiv.isChecked():
    label_number = self.first_num / self.second_num

new_label = format(label_number, '.15g')
self.Display.setText(new_label)
self.btndiv.setChecked(False)

There is stuff that is repeated for every condition.


Personally, I prefer to use the QT designer to build my forms, then load them from Python (with loaduic). This is more visual, and results in less code + separation between logic and presentation.

The UI declaration is probably not going to change a lot over time but the code is nonetheless tedious to read. Some comments would come in handy, and some line spacing too. I take it that this is the result of pyuic5 but it could be improved, because it is clearly bloated and not optimized.

I suppose you've used the QT designer too, and this is the finished product, so not going to delve into this too much.


I added my operations on another file but the problem is coming when I am trying to do multiple operations.

Not sure this is what you mean, but if I type 6*3+2 I get 5 whereas I would expect 20. Is this what you mean. Seems to me that one possible fix is to raise an explicit equal operation before plus/minus/etc.


In fact you could even reduce the number of functions. Because it is possible to get the name of the button that was clicked. Try this in one of your functions:

print(f"sender: {self.sender().objectName()}")

So once you've got the name of the control, you can decide on what action you want to perform.

In unary_press you do this, instead relying on the text inside the button:

label = self.sender()

There are situations where it's better to rely on the name of the control.


Warning: your program does not handle division by zero.

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4
  • \$\begingroup\$ Thank you for your review @Anonymous. Can you tell me how will i Raise that explicit equal operation. \$\endgroup\$ – Vedant Matanhelia Oct 7 '20 at 8:36
  • \$\begingroup\$ I did not use loaduic because i did not know about it as there are not many tutorials on PyQt5 \$\endgroup\$ – Vedant Matanhelia Oct 7 '20 at 8:36
  • \$\begingroup\$ I will surely try to Handle divisionn by zero \$\endgroup\$ – Vedant Matanhelia Oct 7 '20 at 8:37
  • \$\begingroup\$ Can you also help me with an IDE Pycharm is very heavy and slows my system and visual studio does not have enough suggestions even using Kite does not help there \$\endgroup\$ – Vedant Matanhelia Oct 7 '20 at 8:41

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