# LeetCode 310: Minimum Height Trees

Posting my code for a LeetCode problem, if you'd like to review, please do so. Thank you for your time!

## Problem

For an undirected graph with tree characteristics, we can choose any node as the root. The result graph is then a rooted tree. Among all possible rooted trees, those with minimum height are called minimum height trees (MHTs). Given such a graph, write a function to find all the MHTs and return a list of their root labels.

### Format

The graph contains n nodes which are labeled from 0 to n - 1. You will be given the number n and a list of undirected edges (each edge is a pair of labels).

You can assume that no duplicate edges will appear in edges. Since all edges are undirected, [0, 1] is the same as [1, 0] and thus will not appear together in edges.

### Example 1 :

Input: n = 4, edges = [[1, 0], [1, 2], [1, 3]]

0
|
1
/ \
2   3

Output: 


### Example 2 :

Input: n = 6, edges = [[0, 3], [1, 3], [2, 3], [4, 3], [5, 4]]

0  1  2
\ | /
3
|
4
|
5

Output: [3, 4]


### Note:

According to the definition of tree on Wikipedia: “a tree is an undirected graph in which any two vertices are connected by exactly one path. In other words, any connected graph without simple cycles is a tree.” The height of a rooted tree is the number of edges on the longest downward path between the root and a leaf.

### Code

// The following block might slightly improve the execution time;
// Can be removed;
static const auto __optimize__ = []() {
std::ios::sync_with_stdio(false);
std::cin.tie(NULL);
std::cout.tie(NULL);
return 0;
}();

// Can be removed;
#include <cstdint>
#include <vector>
#include <unordered_set>
#include <algorithm>

static const struct Solution {
using ValueType = std::uint_fast16_t;

static const std::vector<int> findMinHeightTrees(
const int n,
const std::vector<std::vector<int>>& edges
) {
std::vector<int> buff_a;
std::vector<int> buff_b;
std::vector<int>* ptr_a = &buff_a;
std::vector<int>* ptr_b = &buff_b;

if (n == 1) {
buff_a.emplace_back(0);
return buff_a;
}

if (n == 2) {
buff_a.emplace_back(0);
buff_a.emplace_back(1);
return buff_a;
}

std::vector<Node> graph(n);

for (const auto& edge : edges) {
graph[edge].neighbors.insert(edge);
graph[edge].neighbors.insert(edge);
}

for (ValueType node = 0; node < n; ++node) {
if (graph[node].isLeaf()) {
ptr_a->emplace_back(node);
}
}

while (true) {
for (const auto& leaf : *ptr_a) {
for (const auto& node : graph[leaf].neighbors) {
graph[node].neighbors.erase(leaf);

if (graph[node].isLeaf()) {
ptr_b->emplace_back(node);
}
}
}

if (ptr_b->empty()) {
return *ptr_a;
}

ptr_a->clear();
std::swap(ptr_a, ptr_b);
}
}

private:
static const struct Node {
std::unordered_set<ValueType> neighbors;
const bool isLeaf() {
return std::size(neighbors) == 1;
}
};
};



### References

A triply nested loops always look scary. Especially with while (true).

First thing first, trust yourself. The leaf node (and the ptr_a contains only leafs) has only one neighbour. The

for (const auto& node : graph[leaf].neighbors)


loop is effectively

auto& node = graph[leaf].neighbors.begin();


for (const auto& leaf : *ptr_a)


prunes leaves from the tree. Factor it out into a prune_leaves function, which would return a set (technically a vector) of the new leaves:

leaves = prune_leaves(leaves, graph);


Third, the outer loop shall naturally terminate when less than 3 leaves remain.

Finally, separate IO from the business logic. That said, a code along the lines of

    graph = build_graph();
leaves = collect_leaves(graph);
while (leaves.size() < 3) {
leaves = prune_leaves(leaves, graph);
}
return leaves;


would win my endorsement. Notice how ptr_a and ptr_b - which are not the most descriptive names - disappear.