I'm posting my code for a LeetCode problem. If you'd like to review, please do so.


  • Design and implement a data structure for Least Recently Used (LRU) cache. It should support the following operations: get and put.

  • get(key) - Get the value (will always be positive) of the key if the key exists in the cache, otherwise return -1.

  • put(key, value) - Set or insert the value if the key is not already present. When the cache reached its capacity, it should invalidate the least recently used item before inserting a new item.

  • The cache is initialized with a positive capacity.

Follow up:

  • Could you do both operations in O(1) time complexity?


LRUCache cache = new LRUCache( 2 /* capacity */ );

cache.put(1, 1);  
cache.put(2, 2);  
cache.get(1);       // returns 1  
cache.put(3, 3);    // evicts key 2  
cache.get(2);       // returns -1 (not found)  
cache.put(4, 4);    // evicts key 1  
cache.get(1);       // returns -1 (not found)  
cache.get(3);       // returns 3  
cache.get(4);       // returns 4

Accepted Python

class LRUCache:
    def __init__(self, capacity: int) -> None:
        self.cache = {}
        self.capacity = capacity
        self.next = {}
        self.prev = {}
        self.head = 'HEAD'
        self.tail = 'TAIL'
        self.connect(self.head, self.tail)

    def connect(self, node_a: int, node_b: int) -> None:
        self.next[node_a], self.prev[node_b] = node_b, node_a

    def remove(self, key: int) -> None:
        self.connect(self.prev[key], self.next[key])
        del(self.prev[key], self.next[key], self.cache[key])

    def append(self, key: int, val: int) -> None:
        self.cache[key] = val
        self.connect(self.prev[self.tail], key)
        self.connect(key, self.tail)
        if len(self.cache) > self.capacity:

    def get(self, key: int) -> int:
        if key not in self.cache:
            return -1
        val = self.cache[key]
        self.append(key, val)
        return val

    def put(self, key: int, val: int) -> None:
        if key in self.cache:
        self.append(key, val)

LeetCode's Solution (Not for review)

class DLinkedNode(): 
    def __init__(self):
        self.key = 0
        self.value = 0
        self.prev = None
        self.next = None
class LRUCache():
    def _add_node(self, node):
        Always add the new node right after head.
        node.prev = self.head
        node.next = self.head.next

        self.head.next.prev = node
        self.head.next = node

    def _remove_node(self, node):
        Remove an existing node from the linked list.
        prev = node.prev
        new = node.next

        prev.next = new
        new.prev = prev

    def _move_to_head(self, node):
        Move certain node in between to the head.

    def _pop_tail(self):
        Pop the current tail.
        res = self.tail.prev
        return res

    def __init__(self, capacity):
        :type capacity: int
        self.cache = {}
        self.size = 0
        self.capacity = capacity
        self.head, self.tail = DLinkedNode(), DLinkedNode()

        self.head.next = self.tail
        self.tail.prev = self.head

    def get(self, key):
        :type key: int
        :rtype: int
        node = self.cache.get(key, None)
        if not node:
            return -1

        # move the accessed node to the head;

        return node.value

    def put(self, key, value):
        :type key: int
        :type value: int
        :rtype: void
        node = self.cache.get(key)

        if not node: 
            newNode = DLinkedNode()
            newNode.key = key
            newNode.value = value

            self.cache[key] = newNode

            self.size += 1

            if self.size > self.capacity:
                # pop the tail
                tail = self._pop_tail()
                del self.cache[tail.key]
                self.size -= 1
            # update the value.
            node.value = value


On LeetCode, there is a class usually named Solution with one or more public functions which we are not allowed to rename.


Something smells funny here:

    self.head = 'HEAD'
    self.tail = 'TAIL'
    self.connect(self.head, self.tail)

def connect(self, node_a: int, node_b: int) -> None:

Those are strings, not integers. Briefly looking through your code, there's nothing requiring that your node keys be integers; they only need to be hashable. This is probably what you want to use for your type hints:


Beyond that, though, I question using those strings for HEAD and TAIL. It would be safer to make sentinel objects self.head = object(); self.tail = object() that will not match anything the user provides.


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