# How to optimize code to take advantage of NumPy broadcasting when calculating pairwise correlation?

I'm trying to take advantage of NumPy broadcasting and backend array computations to significantly speed up this function. Unfortunately, it doesn't scale so well so I'm hoping to greatly improve the performance of this. Right now the code isn't properly utilizing broadcasting for the computations.

Is there a way where I can do operations on the matrix instead of individually calculating pairwise associations?

# ==============================================================================
# Imports
# ==============================================================================
# Built-ins
import os, sys, time, multiprocessing
# 3rd party
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd

# Python
def _biweight_midcorrelation(a, b):
a_median = np.median(a)
b_median = np.median(b)

# Median absolute deviation
a_mad = np.median(np.abs(a - a_median))
b_mad = np.median(np.abs(b - b_median))

u = (a - a_median) / (9 * a_mad)
v = (b - b_median) / (9 * b_mad)

w_a = np.square(1 - np.square(u)) * ((1 - np.abs(u)) > 0)
w_b = np.square(1 - np.square(v)) * ((1 - np.abs(v)) > 0)

a_item = (a - a_median) * w_a
b_item = (b - b_median) * w_b

return (a_item * b_item).sum() / (
np.sqrt(np.square(a_item).sum()) *
np.sqrt(np.square(b_item).sum()))

def biweight_midcorrelation(X):
return X.corr(method=_biweight_midcorrelation)
# # OLD IMPLEMENTATION
# def biweight_midcorrelation(X):
#     median = X.median()
#     mad = (X - median).abs().median()
#     U = (X - median) / (9 * mad)
#     adjacency = np.square(1 - np.square(U)) * ((1 - U.abs()) > 0)
#     estimator = (X - median) * adjacency

#     bicor_matrix = np.empty((X.shape[1], X.shape[1]), dtype=float)

#     for i, ac in enumerate(estimator):
#         for j, bc in enumerate(estimator):
#             a = estimator[ac]
#             b = estimator[bc]

#             c = (a * b).sum() / (
#                 np.sqrt(np.square(a).sum()) * np.sqrt(np.square(b).sum()))
#             bicor_matrix[i, j] = c
#             bicor_matrix[j, i] = c
#     return pd.DataFrame(bicor_matrix, index=X.columns, columns=X.columns)

# X.shape = (150,4)
X = pd.DataFrame({'sepal_length': {'iris_0': 5.1, 'iris_1': 4.9, 'iris_2': 4.7, 'iris_3': 4.6, 'iris_4': 5.0, 'iris_5': 5.4, 'iris_6': 4.6, 'iris_7': 5.0, 'iris_8': 4.4, 'iris_9': 4.9, 'iris_10': 5.4, 'iris_11': 4.8, 'iris_12': 4.8, 'iris_13': 4.3, 'iris_14': 5.8, 'iris_15': 5.7, 'iris_16': 5.4, 'iris_17': 5.1, 'iris_18': 5.7, 'iris_19': 5.1, 'iris_20': 5.4, 'iris_21': 5.1, 'iris_22': 4.6, 'iris_23': 5.1, 'iris_24': 4.8, 'iris_25': 5.0, 'iris_26': 5.0, 'iris_27': 5.2, 'iris_28': 5.2, 'iris_29': 4.7, 'iris_30': 4.8, 'iris_31': 5.4, 'iris_32': 5.2, 'iris_33': 5.5, 'iris_34': 4.9, 'iris_35': 5.0, 'iris_36': 5.5, 'iris_37': 4.9, 'iris_38': 4.4, 'iris_39': 5.1, 'iris_40': 5.0, 'iris_41': 4.5, 'iris_42': 4.4, 'iris_43': 5.0, 'iris_44': 5.1, 'iris_45': 4.8, 'iris_46': 5.1, 'iris_47': 4.6, 'iris_48': 5.3, 'iris_49': 5.0, 'iris_50': 7.0, 'iris_51': 6.4, 'iris_52': 6.9, 'iris_53': 5.5, 'iris_54': 6.5, 'iris_55': 5.7, 'iris_56': 6.3, 'iris_57': 4.9, 'iris_58': 6.6, 'iris_59': 5.2, 'iris_60': 5.0, 'iris_61': 5.9, 'iris_62': 6.0, 'iris_63': 6.1, 'iris_64': 5.6, 'iris_65': 6.7, 'iris_66': 5.6, 'iris_67': 5.8, 'iris_68': 6.2, 'iris_69': 5.6, 'iris_70': 5.9, 'iris_71': 6.1, 'iris_72': 6.3, 'iris_73': 6.1, 'iris_74': 6.4, 'iris_75': 6.6, 'iris_76': 6.8, 'iris_77': 6.7, 'iris_78': 6.0, 'iris_79': 5.7, 'iris_80': 5.5, 'iris_81': 5.5, 'iris_82': 5.8, 'iris_83': 6.0, 'iris_84': 5.4, 'iris_85': 6.0, 'iris_86': 6.7, 'iris_87': 6.3, 'iris_88': 5.6, 'iris_89': 5.5, 'iris_90': 5.5, 'iris_91': 6.1, 'iris_92': 5.8, 'iris_93': 5.0, 'iris_94': 5.6, 'iris_95': 5.7, 'iris_96': 5.7, 'iris_97': 6.2, 'iris_98': 5.1, 'iris_99': 5.7, 'iris_100': 6.3, 'iris_101': 5.8, 'iris_102': 7.1, 'iris_103': 6.3, 'iris_104': 6.5, 'iris_105': 7.6, 'iris_106': 4.9, 'iris_107': 7.3, 'iris_108': 6.7, 'iris_109': 7.2, 'iris_110': 6.5, 'iris_111': 6.4, 'iris_112': 6.8, 'iris_113': 5.7, 'iris_114': 5.8, 'iris_115': 6.4, 'iris_116': 6.5, 'iris_117': 7.7, 'iris_118': 7.7, 'iris_119': 6.0, 'iris_120': 6.9, 'iris_121': 5.6, 'iris_122': 7.7, 'iris_123': 6.3, 'iris_124': 6.7, 'iris_125': 7.2, 'iris_126': 6.2, 'iris_127': 6.1, 'iris_128': 6.4, 'iris_129': 7.2, 'iris_130': 7.4, 'iris_131': 7.9, 'iris_132': 6.4, 'iris_133': 6.3, 'iris_134': 6.1, 'iris_135': 7.7, 'iris_136': 6.3, 'iris_137': 6.4, 'iris_138': 6.0, 'iris_139': 6.9, 'iris_140': 6.7, 'iris_141': 6.9, 'iris_142': 5.8, 'iris_143': 6.8, 'iris_144': 6.7, 'iris_145': 6.7, 'iris_146': 6.3, 'iris_147': 6.5, 'iris_148': 6.2, 'iris_149': 5.9}, 'sepal_width': {'iris_0': 3.5, 'iris_1': 3.0, 'iris_2': 3.2, 'iris_3': 3.1, 'iris_4': 3.6, 'iris_5': 3.9, 'iris_6': 3.4, 'iris_7': 3.4, 'iris_8': 2.9, 'iris_9': 3.1, 'iris_10': 3.7, 'iris_11': 3.4, 'iris_12': 3.0, 'iris_13': 3.0, 'iris_14': 4.0, 'iris_15': 4.4, 'iris_16': 3.9, 'iris_17': 3.5, 'iris_18': 3.8, 'iris_19': 3.8, 'iris_20': 3.4, 'iris_21': 3.7, 'iris_22': 3.6, 'iris_23': 3.3, 'iris_24': 3.4, 'iris_25': 3.0, 'iris_26': 3.4, 'iris_27': 3.5, 'iris_28': 3.4, 'iris_29': 3.2, 'iris_30': 3.1, 'iris_31': 3.4, 'iris_32': 4.1, 'iris_33': 4.2, 'iris_34': 3.1, 'iris_35': 3.2, 'iris_36': 3.5, 'iris_37': 3.6, 'iris_38': 3.0, 'iris_39': 3.4, 'iris_40': 3.5, 'iris_41': 2.3, 'iris_42': 3.2, 'iris_43': 3.5, 'iris_44': 3.8, 'iris_45': 3.0, 'iris_46': 3.8, 'iris_47': 3.2, 'iris_48': 3.7, 'iris_49': 3.3, 'iris_50': 3.2, 'iris_51': 3.2, 'iris_52': 3.1, 'iris_53': 2.3, 'iris_54': 2.8, 'iris_55': 2.8, 'iris_56': 3.3, 'iris_57': 2.4, 'iris_58': 2.9, 'iris_59': 2.7, 'iris_60': 2.0, 'iris_61': 3.0, 'iris_62': 2.2, 'iris_63': 2.9, 'iris_64': 2.9, 'iris_65': 3.1, 'iris_66': 3.0, 'iris_67': 2.7, 'iris_68': 2.2, 'iris_69': 2.5, 'iris_70': 3.2, 'iris_71': 2.8, 'iris_72': 2.5, 'iris_73': 2.8, 'iris_74': 2.9, 'iris_75': 3.0, 'iris_76': 2.8, 'iris_77': 3.0, 'iris_78': 2.9, 'iris_79': 2.6, 'iris_80': 2.4, 'iris_81': 2.4, 'iris_82': 2.7, 'iris_83': 2.7, 'iris_84': 3.0, 'iris_85': 3.4, 'iris_86': 3.1, 'iris_87': 2.3, 'iris_88': 3.0, 'iris_89': 2.5, 'iris_90': 2.6, 'iris_91': 3.0, 'iris_92': 2.6, 'iris_93': 2.3, 'iris_94': 2.7, 'iris_95': 3.0, 'iris_96': 2.9, 'iris_97': 2.9, 'iris_98': 2.5, 'iris_99': 2.8, 'iris_100': 3.3, 'iris_101': 2.7, 'iris_102': 3.0, 'iris_103': 2.9, 'iris_104': 3.0, 'iris_105': 3.0, 'iris_106': 2.5, 'iris_107': 2.9, 'iris_108': 2.5, 'iris_109': 3.6, 'iris_110': 3.2, 'iris_111': 2.7, 'iris_112': 3.0, 'iris_113': 2.5, 'iris_114': 2.8, 'iris_115': 3.2, 'iris_116': 3.0, 'iris_117': 3.8, 'iris_118': 2.6, 'iris_119': 2.2, 'iris_120': 3.2, 'iris_121': 2.8, 'iris_122': 2.8, 'iris_123': 2.7, 'iris_124': 3.3, 'iris_125': 3.2, 'iris_126': 2.8, 'iris_127': 3.0, 'iris_128': 2.8, 'iris_129': 3.0, 'iris_130': 2.8, 'iris_131': 3.8, 'iris_132': 2.8, 'iris_133': 2.8, 'iris_134': 2.6, 'iris_135': 3.0, 'iris_136': 3.4, 'iris_137': 3.1, 'iris_138': 3.0, 'iris_139': 3.1, 'iris_140': 3.1, 'iris_141': 3.1, 'iris_142': 2.7, 'iris_143': 3.2, 'iris_144': 3.3, 'iris_145': 3.0, 'iris_146': 2.5, 'iris_147': 3.0, 'iris_148': 3.4, 'iris_149': 3.0}, 'petal_length': {'iris_0': 1.4, 'iris_1': 1.4, 'iris_2': 1.3, 'iris_3': 1.5, 'iris_4': 1.4, 'iris_5': 1.7, 'iris_6': 1.4, 'iris_7': 1.5, 'iris_8': 1.4, 'iris_9': 1.5, 'iris_10': 1.5, 'iris_11': 1.6, 'iris_12': 1.4, 'iris_13': 1.1, 'iris_14': 1.2, 'iris_15': 1.5, 'iris_16': 1.3, 'iris_17': 1.4, 'iris_18': 1.7, 'iris_19': 1.5, 'iris_20': 1.7, 'iris_21': 1.5, 'iris_22': 1.0, 'iris_23': 1.7, 'iris_24': 1.9, 'iris_25': 1.6, 'iris_26': 1.6, 'iris_27': 1.5, 'iris_28': 1.4, 'iris_29': 1.6, 'iris_30': 1.6, 'iris_31': 1.5, 'iris_32': 1.5, 'iris_33': 1.4, 'iris_34': 1.5, 'iris_35': 1.2, 'iris_36': 1.3, 'iris_37': 1.4, 'iris_38': 1.3, 'iris_39': 1.5, 'iris_40': 1.3, 'iris_41': 1.3, 'iris_42': 1.3, 'iris_43': 1.6, 'iris_44': 1.9, 'iris_45': 1.4, 'iris_46': 1.6, 'iris_47': 1.4, 'iris_48': 1.5, 'iris_49': 1.4, 'iris_50': 4.7, 'iris_51': 4.5, 'iris_52': 4.9, 'iris_53': 4.0, 'iris_54': 4.6, 'iris_55': 4.5, 'iris_56': 4.7, 'iris_57': 3.3, 'iris_58': 4.6, 'iris_59': 3.9, 'iris_60': 3.5, 'iris_61': 4.2, 'iris_62': 4.0, 'iris_63': 4.7, 'iris_64': 3.6, 'iris_65': 4.4, 'iris_66': 4.5, 'iris_67': 4.1, 'iris_68': 4.5, 'iris_69': 3.9, 'iris_70': 4.8, 'iris_71': 4.0, 'iris_72': 4.9, 'iris_73': 4.7, 'iris_74': 4.3, 'iris_75': 4.4, 'iris_76': 4.8, 'iris_77': 5.0, 'iris_78': 4.5, 'iris_79': 3.5, 'iris_80': 3.8, 'iris_81': 3.7, 'iris_82': 3.9, 'iris_83': 5.1, 'iris_84': 4.5, 'iris_85': 4.5, 'iris_86': 4.7, 'iris_87': 4.4, 'iris_88': 4.1, 'iris_89': 4.0, 'iris_90': 4.4, 'iris_91': 4.6, 'iris_92': 4.0, 'iris_93': 3.3, 'iris_94': 4.2, 'iris_95': 4.2, 'iris_96': 4.2, 'iris_97': 4.3, 'iris_98': 3.0, 'iris_99': 4.1, 'iris_100': 6.0, 'iris_101': 5.1, 'iris_102': 5.9, 'iris_103': 5.6, 'iris_104': 5.8, 'iris_105': 6.6, 'iris_106': 4.5, 'iris_107': 6.3, 'iris_108': 5.8, 'iris_109': 6.1, 'iris_110': 5.1, 'iris_111': 5.3, 'iris_112': 5.5, 'iris_113': 5.0, 'iris_114': 5.1, 'iris_115': 5.3, 'iris_116': 5.5, 'iris_117': 6.7, 'iris_118': 6.9, 'iris_119': 5.0, 'iris_120': 5.7, 'iris_121': 4.9, 'iris_122': 6.7, 'iris_123': 4.9, 'iris_124': 5.7, 'iris_125': 6.0, 'iris_126': 4.8, 'iris_127': 4.9, 'iris_128': 5.6, 'iris_129': 5.8, 'iris_130': 6.1, 'iris_131': 6.4, 'iris_132': 5.6, 'iris_133': 5.1, 'iris_134': 5.6, 'iris_135': 6.1, 'iris_136': 5.6, 'iris_137': 5.5, 'iris_138': 4.8, 'iris_139': 5.4, 'iris_140': 5.6, 'iris_141': 5.1, 'iris_142': 5.1, 'iris_143': 5.9, 'iris_144': 5.7, 'iris_145': 5.2, 'iris_146': 5.0, 'iris_147': 5.2, 'iris_148': 5.4, 'iris_149': 5.1}, 'petal_width': {'iris_0': 0.2, 'iris_1': 0.2, 'iris_2': 0.2, 'iris_3': 0.2, 'iris_4': 0.2, 'iris_5': 0.4, 'iris_6': 0.3, 'iris_7': 0.2, 'iris_8': 0.2, 'iris_9': 0.1, 'iris_10': 0.2, 'iris_11': 0.2, 'iris_12': 0.1, 'iris_13': 0.1, 'iris_14': 0.2, 'iris_15': 0.4, 'iris_16': 0.4, 'iris_17': 0.3, 'iris_18': 0.3, 'iris_19': 0.3, 'iris_20': 0.2, 'iris_21': 0.4, 'iris_22': 0.2, 'iris_23': 0.5, 'iris_24': 0.2, 'iris_25': 0.2, 'iris_26': 0.4, 'iris_27': 0.2, 'iris_28': 0.2, 'iris_29': 0.2, 'iris_30': 0.2, 'iris_31': 0.4, 'iris_32': 0.1, 'iris_33': 0.2, 'iris_34': 0.2, 'iris_35': 0.2, 'iris_36': 0.2, 'iris_37': 0.1, 'iris_38': 0.2, 'iris_39': 0.2, 'iris_40': 0.3, 'iris_41': 0.3, 'iris_42': 0.2, 'iris_43': 0.6, 'iris_44': 0.4, 'iris_45': 0.3, 'iris_46': 0.2, 'iris_47': 0.2, 'iris_48': 0.2, 'iris_49': 0.2, 'iris_50': 1.4, 'iris_51': 1.5, 'iris_52': 1.5, 'iris_53': 1.3, 'iris_54': 1.5, 'iris_55': 1.3, 'iris_56': 1.6, 'iris_57': 1.0, 'iris_58': 1.3, 'iris_59': 1.4, 'iris_60': 1.0, 'iris_61': 1.5, 'iris_62': 1.0, 'iris_63': 1.4, 'iris_64': 1.3, 'iris_65': 1.4, 'iris_66': 1.5, 'iris_67': 1.0, 'iris_68': 1.5, 'iris_69': 1.1, 'iris_70': 1.8, 'iris_71': 1.3, 'iris_72': 1.5, 'iris_73': 1.2, 'iris_74': 1.3, 'iris_75': 1.4, 'iris_76': 1.4, 'iris_77': 1.7, 'iris_78': 1.5, 'iris_79': 1.0, 'iris_80': 1.1, 'iris_81': 1.0, 'iris_82': 1.2, 'iris_83': 1.6, 'iris_84': 1.5, 'iris_85': 1.6, 'iris_86': 1.5, 'iris_87': 1.3, 'iris_88': 1.3, 'iris_89': 1.3, 'iris_90': 1.2, 'iris_91': 1.4, 'iris_92': 1.2, 'iris_93': 1.0, 'iris_94': 1.3, 'iris_95': 1.2, 'iris_96': 1.3, 'iris_97': 1.3, 'iris_98': 1.1, 'iris_99': 1.3, 'iris_100': 2.5, 'iris_101': 1.9, 'iris_102': 2.1, 'iris_103': 1.8, 'iris_104': 2.2, 'iris_105': 2.1, 'iris_106': 1.7, 'iris_107': 1.8, 'iris_108': 1.8, 'iris_109': 2.5, 'iris_110': 2.0, 'iris_111': 1.9, 'iris_112': 2.1, 'iris_113': 2.0, 'iris_114': 2.4, 'iris_115': 2.3, 'iris_116': 1.8, 'iris_117': 2.2, 'iris_118': 2.3, 'iris_119': 1.5, 'iris_120': 2.3, 'iris_121': 2.0, 'iris_122': 2.0, 'iris_123': 1.8, 'iris_124': 2.1, 'iris_125': 1.8, 'iris_126': 1.8, 'iris_127': 1.8, 'iris_128': 2.1, 'iris_129': 1.6, 'iris_130': 1.9, 'iris_131': 2.0, 'iris_132': 2.2, 'iris_133': 1.5, 'iris_134': 1.4, 'iris_135': 2.3, 'iris_136': 2.4, 'iris_137': 1.8, 'iris_138': 1.8, 'iris_139': 2.1, 'iris_140': 2.4, 'iris_141': 2.3, 'iris_142': 1.9, 'iris_143': 2.3, 'iris_144': 2.5, 'iris_145': 2.3, 'iris_146': 1.9, 'iris_147': 2.0, 'iris_148': 2.3, 'iris_149': 1.8}})

# Python computation
df_bicor = biweight_midcorrelation(X)