I have created a visualisation of sorting algorithms using tkinter and matplotlib. Please let me know what you think and if you have any suggestions or find errors. The aim of this code is to create a GUI in which the user can enter a length for a random array of number, then select a sorting algorithm from a button, which brings up an animated plot of the sorting algorithm being used on the random array. The plot uses bar heights to represent the numbers in the array. The project can be found with the algorithms separated for ease of reading at: https://github.com/MGedney1/Sorting_Algorithm_Visualisation


import random
import time
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import matplotlib.animation as animation
from matplotlib.figure import Figure
from matplotlib import style
from tkinter import Tk,Label,Entry,Button

def bubble_sort(lst):        #Bubble Sort
    index = len(lst) - 1
    while index >= 0:
        test_index = index
        while test_index >= 0:
            if lst[index] < lst[test_index]:
                temp = lst[index]
                lst[index] = lst[test_index]
                lst[test_index] = temp
            test_index -= 1
            yield lst
        index -= 1

def merge_sort(lst, start, end):        #Merge sort

    if end <= start:        

    mid = start + ((end - start + 1) // 2) - 1      #Finding mid point for split
    yield from merge_sort(lst, start, mid)        #Further splitting first half 
    yield from merge_sort(lst, mid + 1, end)      #Further splitting second half
    yield from merge(lst, start, mid, end)        #Merging
    yield lst

def merge(lst, start, mid, end):

    result = []
    leftIdx = start
    rightIdx = mid + 1

    while leftIdx <= mid and rightIdx <= end:       #checking if next index of first or second list is larger and appending to the result list
        if lst[leftIdx] < lst[rightIdx]:
            leftIdx += 1
            rightIdx += 1

    while leftIdx <= mid:       #If only first list filled then appending that to result
        leftIdx += 1

    while rightIdx <= end:      #Vice versa for the second list
        rightIdx += 1

    for i, sorted_val in enumerate(result):     #Copying values and order to the origional array
        lst[start + i] = sorted_val
        yield lst

def insertion_sort(lst):        
    for i in range(1,len(lst)):     
        j = i-1     #Starting comparison to just the first element of the list
        next_element = lst[i]       #Iterating through the test values from start (indexed 1 intially) to insert
        while (lst[j] > next_element) and (j >= 0):     #iterating through each element already ordered to find position of test value
            lst[j+1] = lst[j]
            j -= 1
        lst[j+1] = next_element
        yield lst

def shell_sort(lst):

    split_point = len(lst) // 2     #Initially splitting the list in half
    while split_point > 0:

        for i in range(split_point, len(lst)):
            temp = lst[i]
            j = i

            while j >= split_point and lst[j - split_point] > temp:     #Sorting the subsection of the list
                lst[j] = lst[j - split_point]
                j = j - split_point
            lst[j] = temp

        split_point = split_point // 2      #splitting the unordered part of the list in half
        yield lst

def create_array(n):

    unordered = [i + 1 for i in range(n)]       #Creating a list of subsequent values
    random.shuffle(unordered)       #Shuffling the list

    return unordered

def update_fig(unordered, rects, iteration,text):        #Update fig function
        for rect, val in zip(rects, unordered):     #Setting height of the rectangles
        iteration[0] += 1
        text.set_text("# of operations: {}".format(iteration[0]))

def create_animation(generator,unordered,n):
    title = 'Sorting Animation'

    fig, ax = plt.subplots()        #Creating axis and figure
    ax.set_title(title)     #Adding a title

    bar_rects = ax.bar(range(len(unordered)), unordered, align="edge")      #Creating the rectangular bars

    ax.set_xlim(0, n)       #Axis limits
    ax.set_ylim(0, int(1.07 * n))

    text = ax.text(0.02, 0.95, "", transform=ax.transAxes)      #Number of operations counter

    iteration = [0]

    if generator != merge_sort:
        anim = animation.FuncAnimation(fig, func=update_fig,        #Creating the animation
            fargs=(bar_rects, iteration,text), frames=generator(unordered), interval=1,
        anim = animation.FuncAnimation(fig, func=update_fig,        #Creating the animation for merge sort
            fargs=(bar_rects, iteration,text), frames=generator(unordered,0,n-1), interval=1,

    plt.show()      #Showing the plot

class GUI:
    def __init__(self,master):
        self.master = master
        master.title('Sorting Algorithm Visualisation')

        self.instruct = Label(master, text="Please enter a length for the array to sort: ")
        self.instruct.grid(row = 1, column = 1,columnspan=2,ipadx=50)

        self.length = Entry(master)

        self.close_button = Button(master, text="Close", command=master.quit)

        self.bubble_sort = Button(master, text="Bubble Sort",command=self.bubble_s)

        self.merge_sort = Button(master, text="Merge Sort",command=self.merge_s)

        self.insertion_sort = Button(master, text="Insertion Sort",command=self.insertion_s)

        self.shell_sort = Button(master, text="Shell Sort",command=self.shell_s)

    def get_length(self):
        self.n = int(self.length.get())

    def bubble_s(self):

    def merge_s(self):

    def insertion_s(self):

    def shell_s(self):

    def animate(self,generator):
        unordered = create_array(self.n)

if __name__ == '__main__':
    root = Tk()
    gui = GUI(root)

  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Add some information what that code is actually intended to do please. \$\endgroup\$ – πάντα ῥεῖ Jan 7 '20 at 20:03

I'll just review bubble_sort as an example. My quick notes:

  1. Add a useful docstring and/or types (I had to read the entire function to realize that it was a generator)
  2. When iterating over a range, use for in range rather than while. I also prefer using brief, generic variable names like i and j in lieu of names like index and test_index that are longer without being any more descriptive.
  3. You can swap two elements with a tuple assignment.
from typing import Generator, List, TypeVar

_Elem = TypeVar('_Elem')

def bubble_sort(elems: List[_Elem]) -> Generator[List[_Elem]]:
    """Bubble-sort a list, yielding the list at each swap."""
    for i in list(reversed(range(len(elems)))):
        for j in list(reversed(range(i))):
            if elems[i] < elems[j]:
                elems[i], elems[j] = elems[j], elems[i]
            yield elems

Note that if you iterate forward instead of backward, you can just use for i in range(len(elems)) -- simply making the code easier to read might be a good enough reason to rearrange this. :)


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