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I have two datasets. The first dataset “insideMarke1” contains the Best Bid / Best Ask (=BBA) data for a given day, starting at 8.00 am. Every time the BBA is updated, there is a new row with a new timestamp.

The second dataset “orders1” contains order data. The order entry timestamps (‘Entry date and time’) in this dataset could be older than the oldest timestamp in the “insideMarke1” dataset. Each row contains one order. There are more orders in “orders1” than BBAs in “insideMarket1” (because not every order entry leads to a BBA update).

What I want to achieve is to create a new dataset “orders1Complete”, with is a combination of both datasets: For every order in “orders1”, I want the Best Bid / Best Ask Price at the moment when the order was entered. If the order entry timestamp is older than the oldest timestamp in the “insideMarke1” dataset, I just want the oldest BBA for these orders.

Therefore, I first added a new column to the “orders1” dataset, called ‘BBA_Timestamp’. And then I merged both datasets on this column. As a want the BBA timestamp at the moment before the order was entered, it is necessary to consider that the BBA timestamp has to be older than the order ‘Entry Date and Time’ timestamp.

Below stands my code:

import pandas as pd


insideMarke1 = pd.DataFrame({'Timestamp':['2019-12-01 08:00:00.123456', '2019-12-01 08:00:01.123456', '2019-12-01 08:00:02.123456', '2019-12-01 08:00:03.123456', '2019-12-01 08:00:05.123456'],
                             'bestBidQnt':[100, 100, 50, 50, 100],
                             'bestBidPrice':[50.01, 50.01, 50.02, 50.02, 50.01],
                             'bestAskPrice':[51.00, 50.99, 50.99, 50.50, 50.50],
                             'bestAskQnt':[200, 100, 100, 200, 200]})

orders1 = pd.DataFrame({'Entry Date and Time':['2019-11-30 17:29:50.000000','2019-12-01 07:30:01.112233', '2019-12-01 08:00:00.123456', '2019-12-01 08:00:00.512341', '2019-12-01 08:00:01.123456', '2019-12-01 08:00:02.123456', '2019-12-01 08:00:02.987654', '2019-12-01 08:00:03.123456', '2019-12-01 08:00:04.000000', '2019-12-01 08:00:05.123456'],
                       'Bid':['True', 'True', 'False', 'False', 'False', 'True', 'True', 'False', 'True', 'True'],
                       'Price':[49.00, 49.50, 51.00, 51.50, 50.99, 50.02, 48.00, 50.50, 49.00, 50.01 ],
                       'Qnt':[50, 100, 200, 150, 100, 50, 10, 200, 80, 100 ]})


insideMarke1[['Timestamp']] = insideMarke1[['Timestamp']].apply(pd.to_datetime, unit='ns') 
orders1[['Entry Date and Time']] = orders1[['Entry Date and Time']].apply(pd.to_datetime, unit='ns')


orders1['BBA_Timestamp'] = 0
i = 0
minInsideMarke1 = min(insideMarke1['Timestamp'])

for i in range(len(orders1['Entry Date and Time'])):
    if orders1['Entry Date and Time'][i] <= minInsideMarke1:
        orders1['BBA_Timestamp'][i] = minInsideMarke1
    else:
        insideMarke1_temp = insideMarke1.loc[(insideMarke1['Timestamp'] < orders1['Entry Date and Time'][i])]
        orders1['BBA_Timestamp'][i] = min(insideMarke1_temp['Timestamp'], key=lambda x: abs(orders1['Entry Date and Time'][i]-x))

orders1 = orders1.reset_index(drop=True)
insideMarke1 = insideMarke1.reset_index(drop=True)

insideMarke1 = insideMarke1.drop_duplicates('Timestamp', keep='last')
insideMarke1.rename(columns={'Timestamp': 'BBA_Timestamp'}, inplace=True)
insideMarke1[['BBA_Timestamp']] = insideMarke1[['BBA_Timestamp']].apply(pd.to_datetime, unit='ns')
insideMarke1 = insideMarke1.sort_values(by=['BBA_Timestamp']).reset_index(drop=True)
orders1[['BBA_Timestamp']] = orders1[['BBA_Timestamp']].apply(pd.to_datetime, unit='ns')
orders1 = orders1.sort_values(by=['BBA_Timestamp']).reset_index(drop=True)

orders1Complete = pd.merge_asof(orders1, insideMarke1, on='BBA_Timestamp')

The code works fine, but it is soooo sloooow. My data sets contain several thousand lines and I have to do this for several of those data sets...

I would be very very glad for any help, tips, advices,...

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  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ Have you considered using a database such as MySQL? Databases are pretty good for this kind of thing. BTW Welcome to code review. \$\endgroup\$
    – pacmaninbw
    Dec 7 '19 at 15:48
  • \$\begingroup\$ @pacmaninbw: It is more convenient for me to stick to pyhton, as I already have some code, which I use after having merged the to data sets. But thanks for the suggestion anyways! \$\endgroup\$
    – The__Don
    Dec 9 '19 at 15:16
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This seems to work.

Use numpy.searchsorted() to get the indices of the BBA for each order. Add the indices as a new column to the order1 dataframe. It's like bisect in the standard library.

Then merge the two dataframes on the insideMarke1 index and the order1 'BBA Index' column.

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np

insideMarke1 = pd.DataFrame({'Timestamp':['2019-12-01 08:00:00.123456', '2019-12-01 08:00:01.123456', '2019-12-01 08:00:02.123456', '2019-12-01 08:00:03.123456', '2019-12-01 08:00:05.123456'],
                             'bestBidQnt':[100, 100, 50, 50, 100],
                             'bestBidPrice':[50.01, 50.01, 50.02, 50.02, 50.01],
                             'bestAskPrice':[51.00, 50.99, 50.99, 50.50, 50.50],
                             'bestAskQnt':[200, 100, 100, 200, 200]})

orders1 = pd.DataFrame({'Entry Date and Time':['2019-11-30 17:29:50.000000','2019-12-01 07:30:01.112233', '2019-12-01 08:00:00.123456', '2019-12-01 08:00:00.512341', '2019-12-01 08:00:01.123456', '2019-12-01 08:00:02.123456', '2019-12-01 08:00:02.987654', '2019-12-01 08:00:03.123456', '2019-12-01 08:00:04.000000', '2019-12-01 08:00:05.123456'],
                       'Bid':['True', 'True', 'False', 'False', 'False', 'True', 'True', 'False', 'True', 'True'],
                       'Price':[49.00, 49.50, 51.00, 51.50, 50.99, 50.02, 48.00, 50.50, 49.00, 50.01 ],
                       'Qnt':[50, 100, 200, 150, 100, 50, 10, 200, 80, 100 ]})


insideMarke1[['Timestamp']] = insideMarke1[['Timestamp']].apply(pd.to_datetime, unit='ns') 
orders1[['Entry Date and Time']] = orders1[['Entry Date and Time']].apply(pd.to_datetime, unit='ns')

BBA_Index = np.searchsorted(insideMarke1['Timestamp'], orders1['Entry Date and Time'], 'left')
orders1['BBA Index'] =  (BBA_Index - 1).clip(0, len(insideMarke1))

orders1Complete = insideMarke1.merge(orders1, left_index=True, right_on='BBA Index')

result:

    Timestamp   bestBidQnt  bestBidPrice    bestAskPrice    bestAskQnt  Entry Date and Time     Bid     Price   Qnt     BBA Index
0   2019-12-01 08:00:00.123456  100     50.01   51.00   200     2019-11-30 17:29:50.000000  True    49.00    50     0
1   2019-12-01 08:00:00.123456  100     50.01   51.00   200     2019-12-01 07:30:01.112233  True    49.50   100     0
2   2019-12-01 08:00:00.123456  100     50.01   51.00   200     2019-12-01 08:00:00.123456  False   51.00   200     0
3   2019-12-01 08:00:00.123456  100     50.01   51.00   200     2019-12-01 08:00:00.512341  False   51.50   150     0
4   2019-12-01 08:00:00.123456  100     50.01   51.00   200     2019-12-01 08:00:01.123456  False   50.99   100     0
5   2019-12-01 08:00:01.123456  100     50.01   50.99   100     2019-12-01 08:00:02.123456  True    50.02    50     1
6   2019-12-01 08:00:02.123456   50     50.02   50.99   100     2019-12-01 08:00:02.987654  True    48.00    10     2
7   2019-12-01 08:00:02.123456   50     50.02   50.99   100     2019-12-01 08:00:03.123456  False   50.50   200     2
8   2019-12-01 08:00:03.123456   50     50.02   50.50   200     2019-12-01 08:00:04.000000  True    49.00    80     3
9   2019-12-01 08:00:03.123456   50     50.02   50.50   200     2019-12-01 08:00:05.123456  True    50.01   100     3
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  • \$\begingroup\$ Perfect, thank you so much! This works fine and it is a million times faster. \$\endgroup\$
    – The__Don
    Dec 9 '19 at 15:13

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