# GLSL Shader that displays a Rotating Rainbow Ring

I'm learning GLSL shaders on Book of Shaders and I decided to mess around with one of the examples. I wanted to see, whats a more efficient way to calculate to mask out the color?

#ifdef GL_ES
precision mediump float;
#endif

#define TWO_PI 6.28318530718

uniform vec2 u_resolution;
uniform float u_time;

//  Function from Iñigo Quiles
vec3 hsb2rgb( in vec3 c ){
vec3 rgb = clamp(abs(mod(c.x*6.0+vec3(0.0,4.0,2.0),6.0)-3.0)-1.0,0.0,1.0);
rgb = rgb*rgb*(3.0-2.0*rgb);
return c.z * mix( vec3(1.0), rgb, c.y);
}

void main(){
vec2 st = gl_FragCoord.xy/u_resolution;
vec3 color = vec3(0.0);

// Use polar coordinates instead of cartesian
vec2 toCenter = vec2(0.5)-st;

float angle = atan(toCenter.y,toCenter.x);

angle = angle + u_time;

float outsideMask = 1.0 - step(distance(st, vec2(0.5)), 0.3);
float insideMask = 1.0 - step(0.2, distance(st, vec2(0.5)));

// Map the angle (-PI to PI) to the Hue (from 0 to 1)
// and the Saturation to the radius

gl_FragColor = vec4(color, visibleArea);
}


Here is an image of the end result. The outsideMask, insideMask and visibleArea variables in particular all have that 1.0 minus something, which seems weird to me. Any suggestions would be appreciated!

## Distance

In both your step(...) functions, you are computing distance(st, vec2(0.5)). If you computed this once, and stored this in a local variable, you'd be able to reuse this computed value, which should save time in your shader.

But ... wait a second ...

vec2 toCenter = vec2(0.5)-st;


You've already computed this distance (length, actually), and stored it (doubled) in the local variable radius. We can use this value directly, by doubling your step thresholds:

float outsideMask = 1.0 - step(radius, 0.6);


Or don't multiply the computed radius by 2.0 for the radius variable, and multiply it by 2 when you use it to compute the colour:

float radius = length(toCenter);



## visibleArea

1. outsideMask = 1.0 - step(radius, 0.3)
2. insideMask = 1.0 - step(0.2, radius)
3. visibleArea = 1.0 - insideMask - outsideMask

Substituting insideMask into (3):

1. visibleArea = 1.0 - (1.0 - step(0.2, radius)) - outsideMask
2. visibleArea = 1.0 - 1.0 + step(0.2, radius) - outsideMask
3. visibleArea = step(0.2, radius) - outsideMask

From step(A,B) = 1 - step(B,A), we can reworking (1) as:

1. outsideMask = step(0.3, radius)

And substituting into (6):

1. visibleArea = step(0.2, radius) - step(0.3, radius)