I am beginner in python and I am learing about syntax and other functions in python by writing Algorithm and Data Structure programs.

How can this code be improved?

def get_input(): #to get input from user
    input_str = input("Enter elements to be sorted: ")
        lst = list(map(int, input_str.split())) #make a list of integers from input string
        raise TypeError("Please enter a list of integers only, seperated by a space!!")
    return lst

def max_heapify(thelist, lst_size, idx):
    largest = idx
    left_child = (2 * idx) + 1
    right_child = (2 * idx) + 2

    if left_child < lst_size and thelist[left_child] > thelist[largest]:
        largest = left_child

    if right_child < lst_size and thelist[right_child] > thelist[largest]:
        largest = right_child

    if largest != idx:
        thelist[idx], thelist[largest] = thelist[largest], thelist[idx]
        max_heapify(thelist, lst_size, largest)

def build_max_heap(thelist, lst_size):
    for curr_idx in range(lst_size // 2 - 1, -1, -1):
        max_heapify(thelist, lst_size, curr_idx)

def heap_sort(thelist):
    if len(thelist) == 0:
        print("Empty list!!")

    elif len(thelist) == 1:
        print("Only one element!!")

        build_max_heap(thelist, len(thelist))

        for curr_idx in range(len(thelist) -1, 0, -1):
            thelist[curr_idx], thelist[0] = thelist[0], thelist[curr_idx] #swapping
            max_heapify(thelist, curr_idx, 0)

if __name__ == '__main__':
    input_list = get_input()
    print(*input_list, sep = ", ")

Use standard docstrings

This comment:

to get input from user

is best placed in a docstring:

def get_input():
    get input from user

Consider using type hints

You're best to google this, because there's a wealth of information about it, but as an example: the idx argument would be idx: int.

Operator precedence

(2 * idx) + 1

doesn't need parens, because multiplication has stronger association than addition.

Never except:

At the least, you should write except Exception instead of except. The latter can prevent user break (Ctrl+C) from working. If possible, replace Exception with something more specific.

Use a comprehension

map is a little difficult to read. Instead, how about

lst = [int(e) for e in input_str.split()]

Variable naming

lst isn't helpful - rather than naming things based on what type they are, you should be naming them based on what they actually mean to the program - in this case, perhaps "elements".

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