# Secure file upload in PHP

I've coded this function as a secure file upload function in PHP.

Currently I'm woking on an academic grading system (PHP script) which's really sensitive, so tell me what you think, and if you have any comments or recommendations please share it with me.

<?php
function secureUpload($fileField = null,$uploadPath = 'uploads/', $maxSize = 8000000,$newName = 1, $isImage = true,$checkImage = false, $allowedMimeTypes = []) { // Create an array to hold any outputs:$output = [];

if($isImage)$allowedMimeTypes =
['jpeg'=> 'image/jpeg',
'jpg' => 'image/jpeg',
'png' => 'image/png',
'bmp' => 'image/bmp',
'gif' => 'image/gif'];
elseif(!is_array($allowedMimeTypes) || @count($allowedMimeTypes) < 1)
$allowedMimeTypes = ['ez'=>'application/andrew-inset','hqx'=>'application/mac-binhex40','cpt'=>'application/mac-compactpro', 'doc'=>'application/msword','bin'=>'application/octet-stream','dms'=>'application/octet-stream','lha'=>'application/octet-stream', 'lzh'=>'application/octet-stream','exe'=>'application/octet-stream','class'=>'application/octet-stream','so'=>'application/octet-stream', 'dll'=>'application/octet-stream','oda'=>'application/oda','pdf'=>'application/pdf','ai'=>'application/postscript','eps'=>'application/postscript', 'ps'=>'application/postscript','smi'=>'application/smil','smil'=>'application/smil','wbxml'=>'application/vnd.wap.wbxml','wmlc'=>'application/vnd.wap.wmlc', 'wmlsc'=>'application/vnd.wap.wmlscriptc','bcpio'=>'application/x-bcpio','vcd'=>'application/x-cdlink','pgn'=>'application/x-chess-pgn','cpio'=>'application/x-cpio', 'csh'=>'application/x-csh','dcr'=>'application/x-director','dir'=>'application/x-director','dxr'=>'application/x-director','dvi'=>'application/x-dvi','spl'=>'application/x-futuresplash', 'gtar'=>'application/x-gtar','hdf'=>'application/x-hdf','js'=>'application/x-javascript','skp'=>'application/x-koan','skd'=>'application/x-koan','skt'=>'application/x-koan', 'skm'=>'application/x-koan','latex'=>'application/x-latex','nc'=>'application/x-netcdf','cdf'=>'application/x-netcdf','sh'=>'application/x-sh','shar'=>'application/x-shar', 'swf'=>'application/x-shockwave-flash','sit'=>'application/x-stuffit','sv4cpio'=>'application/x-sv4cpio','sv4crc'=>'application/x-sv4crc','tar'=>'application/x-tar', 'tcl'=>'application/x-tcl','tex'=>'application/x-tex','texinfo'=>'application/x-texinfo','texi'=>'application/x-texinfo','t'=>'application/x-troff','tr'=>'application/x-troff', 'roff'=>'application/x-troff','man'=>'application/x-troff-man','me'=>'application/x-troff-me','ms'=>'application/x-troff-ms','ustar'=>'application/x-ustar', 'src'=>'application/x-wais-source','xhtml'=>'application/xhtml+xml','xht'=>'application/xhtml+xml','zip'=>'application/zip','au'=>'audio/basic','snd'=>'audio/basic','mid'=>'audio/midi', 'midi'=>'audio/midi','kar'=>'audio/midi','mpga'=>'audio/mpeg','mp2'=>'audio/mpeg','mp3'=>'audio/mpeg','aif'=>'audio/x-aiff','aiff'=>'audio/x-aiff','aifc'=>'audio/x-aiff', 'm3u'=>'audio/x-mpegurl','ram'=>'audio/x-pn-realaudio','rm'=>'audio/x-pn-realaudio','rpm'=>'audio/x-pn-realaudio-plugin','ra'=>'audio/x-realaudio','wav'=>'audio/x-wav', 'pdb'=>'chemical/x-pdb','xyz'=>'chemical/x-xyz','bmp'=>'image/bmp','gif'=>'image/gif','ief'=>'image/ief','jpeg'=>'image/jpeg','jpg'=>'image/jpeg','jpe'=>'image/jpeg', 'png'=>'image/png','tiff'=>'image/tiff','tif'=>'image/tif','djvu'=>'image/vnd.djvu','djv'=>'image/vnd.djvu','wbmp'=>'image/vnd.wap.wbmp','ras'=>'image/x-cmu-raster', 'pnm'=>'image/x-portable-anymap','pbm'=>'image/x-portable-bitmap','pgm'=>'image/x-portable-graymap','ppm'=>'image/x-portable-pixmap','rgb'=>'image/x-rgb','xbm'=>'image/x-xbitmap', 'xpm'=>'image/x-xpixmap','xwd'=>'image/x-windowdump','igs'=>'model/iges','iges'=>'model/iges','msh'=>'model/mesh','mesh'=>'model/mesh','silo'=>'model/mesh','wrl'=>'model/vrml', 'vrml'=>'model/vrml','css'=>'text/css','html'=>'text/html','htm'=>'text/html','asc'=>'text/plain','txt'=>'text/plain','rtx'=>'text/richtext','rtf'=>'text/rtf', 'sgml'=>'text/sgml','sgm'=>'text/sgml','tsv'=>'text/tab-seperated-values','wml'=>'text/vnd.wap.wml','wmls'=>'text/vnd.wap.wmlscript','etx'=>'text/x-setext', 'xml'=>'text/xml','xsl'=>'text/xml','mpeg'=>'video/mpeg','mpg'=>'video/mpeg','mpe'=>'video/mpeg','qt'=>'video/quicktime','mov'=>'video/quicktime','mxu'=>'video/vnd.mpegurl', 'avi'=>'video/x-msvideo','movie'=>'video/x-sgi-movie','ice'=>'x-conference-xcooltalk']; else if(isset($allowedMimeTypes['0'])) $output['errors'][] = 'The allowed extensions must be used as index for each MIME type in the ‘$allowedMimeTypes’ array.';

$uploadPath = rtrim($uploadPath, '/') . '/'; // Checking if path ends in '/' ... if not then tack it on.

//        || Validation ||

if(!$fileField)$output['errors'][] = 'Please specify a valid file field.';
if(!$uploadPath)$output['errors'][] = 'Please specify a valid upload path.';
if(@count($output['errors']) > 0) return$output;

if((!empty($_FILES[$fileField])) && ($_FILES[$fileField]['error'] == 0)) {
// Get file info:
$fileInfo = pathinfo($_FILES[$fileField]['name']);$fileName = $fileInfo['filename'];$fileSize = $_FILES[$fileField]['size'];
$fileExt = strtolower($fileInfo['extension']);

// Check if the file has the right extension and type:
if(!@isset($allowedMimeTypes[$fileExt])) $output['errors'][] = 'Invalid file format.'; //'Invalid file extension.'; if(!@in_array($_FILES[$fileField]['type'],$allowedMimeTypes)) $output['errors'][] = 'Invalid file type.'; // Check that the file is not too big .. Given$maxSize in (byets).
if($fileSize >$maxSize) $output['errors'][] = 'File is too big. Max allowed size is: '.($maxSize / 1024).' Kb, yours is '.($fileSize / 1024).' Kb.'; // If ‘$isImage’ AND ‘$checkImage’ are set to ‘true’ // Then, using getimagesize(), we'll be processing the image with the GD library. // If it isn’t an image, this will fail and therefor the entire upload will fail: if($checkImage && $isImage){if(!getimagesize($_FILES[$fileField]['tmp_name']))$output['errors'][] = 'Uploaded file is not a valid image.';}

$newFileName = ($newName === 1 ? sprintf('%s.%s', md5_file($_FILES[$fileField]['tmp_name']), $fileExt) // If ($newName = 1) <- $newFileName = Md5_file : ($newName === 2 ? sprintf('%s.%s', substr(md5(microtime()),0,15), $fileExt) // If ($newName = 2) <- $newFileName = Random name : ($newName === 3 ? sprintf('%s.%s', $fileName,$fileExt)                                 // If ($newName = 3) <-$newFileName = Same name
: sprintf('%s.%s', $newName,$fileExt))));                                                // Else              <- $newFileName = The name passed in ‘$newName’

// Check if file already exists on server:
if(file_exists($uploadPath.$newFileName)) $output['errors'][] = 'A file with the same name already exists.'; // Create the$uploadPath if it doesn't already exist:
if(!is_dir($uploadPath)) @mkdir($uploadPath) OR $output['errors'][] = 'Error creating directory: '.str_replace(['mkdir(): ','File'],['','Directory'], error_get_last()['message']); // The file has not correctly validated: if(@count($output['errors']) > 0) return $output; if(move_uploaded_file($_FILES[$fileField]['tmp_name'],$uploadPath.$newFileName)) {$output['filename'] = $newFileName;$output['filepath'] = $uploadPath;$output['filesize'] = $fileSize; } else$output['errors'][] = 'Server error.';
} else $output['errors'][] = 'No file uploaded.'; return$output;
}


• It looks secure but hugely over-engineered. – Your Common Sense Jun 11 '19 at 9:10

A conditional lookup array? Why do it? I never have and don't see the advantage. I think it would be cleaner to separate the data from the processing. To do this, just add a higher level key...

$allowedMimeTypes = [ 'images' => [ 'jpeg' => ... ], 'all' => [ 'ez' => ... ] ];  This places all of the data with a similar purpose in a single, expressive lookup. Downscript, you won't ever need to scroll back up to the top of your function to check which lookup array (which in your code will have one variable name, but two potential sets of data) that you are dealing with. Furthermore, if you define the lookup as a constant, it becomes globally available. This will afford you the ability to pull the general-use lookup out of the function and potentially share it elsewhere -- this is best practice. With a static lookup array, all of your conditional logic can be written in a much tighter condition block. You simply use your incoming function parameters to determine which parent key should be used on the lookup array. Never use @ as a silencer. Always properly handle your data. If you want to know if something isset and has count, use !empty(). After you ensure that a variable exists via isset(), array_key_exists(), or empty(), then you can move on to accessing or counting the data as required. If you know an array-type variable exist and you want to check if it is empty, you can simply use !$variable and spare a function call.

This line doesn't do what the comment says it does:

$uploadPath = rtrim($uploadPath, '/') . '/'; // Checking if path ends in '/' ... if not then tack it on.


Either explain that it eliminates any right-hand side slashes, then appends a slash or change the code to something like:

if (substr($uploadPath, -1) != '/') {$uploadPath .= '/';
}


Always use curly braces for every loop and condition block. This will avoid accidental typos and make your code easier to read. Never write nested if conditions in a single line ...for the same reason.

For simplicity,

if((!empty($_FILES[$fileField])) && ($_FILES[$fileField]['error'] == 0)) {


can be:

if (!empty($_FILES[$fileField]) && !$_FILES[$fileField]['error']) {


As a matter of consistency, I recommend always using && and || in php versus AND and OR. This will prevent any trip ups regarding precedence. 'AND' vs '&&' as operator

• Why would I pass the array $allowedMimeTypes with all these data into memory? If it's an image then only define it with needed data, and let's say I used your way, I won't be able to use the user defined types, the way I used is the best to solve these two issues. – RyadPasha Jun 11 '19 at 18:02 • I'm already using && and || in my statements – RyadPasha Jun 11 '19 at 18:04 • Building a master lookup array to handle a single function call is not going to significantly impact memory, especially compared to the images that you are actually processing. The advantages are portability of the data and code clarity in this script. If you want to pass a separate, user-defined array of approved extensions, okay, but that seems like a loss of control. I didn't go to your github and I don't plan to. In the end, there is nothing in my suggestions to stop you from passing an overriding custom lookup. – mickmackusa Jun 11 '19 at 21:27 • As far as AND, don't take the link title too literally, it is also about OR and precedence. You may have overlooked OR because it is squeezed into if(!is_dir$uploadPath)) @mkdir($uploadPath) OR$output['errors'][] = ... – mickmackusa Jun 11 '19 at 21:27