I have a Python code that deals with parsing xml-feeds of footwear online stores. I want to let the code look more professional for the sake of optimal reusability for other programmers.

It includes more script files, but I'm more interested in utils.py

import re
from .setup_logger import *
from .metadata import reference_categories, ref_cat_list

def get_ref_text(offer_element, anchor):
    linked_tuple = (offer_element[key].lower() for key in anchor if key in offer_element.keys()
                    and type(offer_element[key]) is str)
    return ''.join(linked_tuple)

def asos_size(meta_size, offer_element):
    meta_size = meta_size.replace(',', '.')
    sizetype = re.search(r'[a-zA-Zа-яА-Я]+', meta_size)
    int_size = re.search(r'\d+\.?\d+?', meta_size)
    fract_size = re.search(r' \d{1}/\d{1}', meta_size)

    if sizetype is None or int_size is None:
        return False
    str_size = int_size.group(0)
    sizetype = sizetype.group(0)
    size = float(str_size) if '.5' in str_size else int(str_size)

    offer_element['sizetype'] = sizetype.lower()
    offer_element['size'] = size
    if fract_size is not None:
        offer_element['size'] = size + 0.5
    offer_element['size'] = str(offer_element['size'])

def yoox_size(offer_element):
    if offer_element['sizetype'] != 'eu':
        del offer_element['size']
        return False
        size_l = []
        for meta_size in offer_element['size'].split(','):
            int_size = re.search(r'(\d+)\.?(\d+)?', meta_size)
            frac_size = re.search(r'(⅔)|(⅓)', meta_size)
            if int_size is None:
            elif frac_size is None:
                res_size = int_size.group(0)
            elif frac_size is not None:
                res_size = int_size.group(0) + '.5'
    offer_element['size'] = size_l

def add_size(xml_element, offer_element, shop, unit_attr_name='unit'):
    if type(xml_element.text) is not str:
        return False
    if re.findall(r'[/-]', xml_element.text) or xml_element.text.isalpha():
        return False

    # exceptions for size
    # and size type switch
    if shop == 'nike':
        offer_element['sizetype'] = 'us'
        offer_element['size'] = xml_element.text
        return True

    if shop == 'asos':
        asos_size(xml_element.text, offer_element)
        return True

    if shop == 'adidas':
        sizetype = xml_element.attrib[unit_attr_name].lower()
        eur = re.search('eur', sizetype)
        ru = re.search('ru', sizetype)
        uk = re.search('uk', sizetype)
        if eur is not None:
            offer_element['sizetype'] = eur.group(0)
        elif ru is not None:
            offer_element['sizetype'] = ru.group(0)
        elif uk is not None:
            offer_element['sizetype'] = uk.group(0)
        offer_element['size'] = xml_element.text
        return True

    if unit_attr_name in xml_element.keys():
        offer_element['sizetype'] = xml_element.attrib[unit_attr_name].lower()
        offer_element['size'] = xml_element.text

    if shop == 'yoox':

    if shop in ('vans', 'lamoda', 'aupontrouge', 'kupivip'):
        offer_element['size'] = offer_element['size'].replace(',', '.')

# exceptions for puma and slamdunk
def add_gender(shop, offer_element):
    exception_list = ['puma', 'slamdunk']
    if shop not in exception_list:
        return False
    men = ('мужские', 'мужская', 'мужской', 'мужчин')
    women = ('женские', 'женская', 'женский', 'женщин')
    unisex = ('унисекс', 'unisex')
    kid = ('детские', 'детская', 'детский', 'детей', 'мальчиков', 'девочек')

    anchor = ('description', 'category', 'title')
    ref_text = get_ref_text(offer_element, anchor)

    for word in kid:
        if word in ref_text:
            offer_element['sex'] = 'kid'
            return True
    for word in women:
        if word in ref_text:
            offer_element['sex'] = 'women'
            return True
    for word in men:
        if word in ref_text:
            offer_element['sex'] = 'men'
            return True
    for word in unisex:
        if word in ref_text:
            offer_element['sex'] = 'unisex'
            return True
    offer_element['sex'] = 'men'

# revert categories
def add_categories(categories_dict, offer_element):
    if 'category' in offer_element.keys() and offer_element['category'] is not None \
            and offer_element['category'] in categories_dict.keys():
        offer_element['category'] = reference_categories[categories_dict[offer_element['category']]]
        del offer_element['category']
        return False
    anchor = ('description', 'category', 'title', 'model')
    ref_text = get_ref_text(offer_element, anchor)
    for ref in ref_cat_list:
        if ref in ref_text:
            offer_element['category'] = ref
            return True

# getting model out of description
def add_model(shop, offer_element):
    def from_title(offer_vendor, offer_title, offer):
        vendor_len = len(offer_vendor)
        start_pos = title.index(offer_vendor)
        model_index = start_pos + vendor_len
        result_model = offer_title[model_index:]
        offer['model'] = result_model.strip()

    if 'title' not in offer_element.keys() or offer_element['title'] is None:
        return False

    if shop == 'nike':
        title = offer_element['title']
        for vendor in ('Nike', 'Jordan'):
            if vendor in title:
                from_title(vendor, title, offer_element)
                return True
        result = re.sub(r'[а-яА-я]', '', title)
        offer_element['model'] = result.strip()

    if shop in ('adidas', 'puma', 'aizel'):
        title = offer_element['title']
        result = re.sub(r'[а-яА-я]', '', title)
        offer_element['model'] = result.strip()

# exceptions for offer
def add_exceptions(shop, offer_element):
    if shop == 'nike' and 'picture' in offer_element.keys() and offer_element['picture'] is not None:
        offer_element['picture'] = offer_element['picture'].replace('_PREM', '')[:-1] + 'A'
    if shop == 'sportpoint' and 'title' in offer_element.keys():
        offer_element['description'] = offer_element['title']
    if shop == 'puma' and 'description' in offer_element.keys():
        desc = offer_element['description']
        if type(desc) is str:
            offer_element['description'] = re.sub(r'[&,lt;,li,&,gt;,strong,\\li,\\ul,]', ' ', desc)

# exceptions for tag
def add_tag_exception(shop, xml_element, offer_element):
    if shop == 'lamoda' and xml_element.tag == 'model' and xml_element.text is not None:
        offer_element['model'] = xml_element.text

    if shop == 'asos' and xml_element.tag == 'model' and xml_element.text is not None:
        result = re.sub(r'[а-яА-я]', '', xml_element.text)
        offer_element['model'] = result.strip()

and the main class Feed.py

import re
import datetime
import xml.etree.ElementTree as Etree
from .resources.setup_logger import *
from pytz import timezone
from .resources.links import urls
from .resources.metadata import categories, tags, size_type_dict, gender_dict
from .resources.utils import *
from os import remove, rename, listdir, mkdir
from os.path import isfile, isdir, getsize, join, abspath
from urllib import request
from math import ceil

class Feed(object):
    """Works with data feeds for importing to site.
    Converts object to a Feed object for working with
    data to be imported to site"""

    downloads = abspath('downloads')

    def __init__(self, shop, partner='admitad', _type='.xml'):
        self.shop = shop
        self.url = urls[self.shop]
        self.partner = partner
        self.filtered = False
        self.type = _type
        self.file_name = self.shop + self.type
        self.folder = join(self.downloads, self.partner)
        self.previous_file_name = 'previous_{}'.format(self.file_name)
        self.path = join(self.downloads, self.partner, self.file_name)
        self.previous_path = join(self.downloads, self.partner, self.previous_file_name)
        if not isdir(self.folder):

        self.shoe_categories = categories[shop]
        self.replace_tags = tags[shop]

    def __eq__(self, other):
        """Overloaded the equation operator checks if
        the feed file self is equal to the other one"""
        return getsize(self.path) == getsize(other.path)

    def downloaded(self):
        """Checks if feed (not the previous one) is downloaded"""
        return isfile(self.path)

    def previously_downloaded(self):
        """Checks if previous_feed is downloaded"""
        return isfile(self.previous_path)

    def archive(self):
        """Moves previous feed to archive"""
        rename(self.path, self.previous_path)
        logger.info('Archived {0} to {1}'.format(self.shop.upper(), self.previous_path))

    def remove_feed(self, previous=False):
        """Deletes certain feed from a given path (in self.path) previous
        (boolean) key sets what exact feed has to be removed (old or new)"""
        if self.downloaded() and not previous:
            logger.info('Removed {} xml feed'.format(self.shop.upper()))
        if self.previously_downloaded() and previous:
            logger.info('Removed {} archive xml feed'.format(self.shop.upper()))

    def download_feed(self):
        """Downloads feed from a given url (in self.url), deleting previous
         feed if exists, renames previous feed to an archived feed"""
            file_data = request.urlopen(self.url)
        except ValueError:
            logger.info('ERROR: Unknown url\nNot reachable site')
            return None
            if self.previously_downloaded() and self.downloaded():
            if self.downloaded():
            logger.info('Downloading {} xml feed...'.format(self.shop.upper()))
            data_to_write = file_data.read()
            with open(self.path, 'wb') as f:
            logger.info('Saved {0} xml feed to {1}\n'.format(self.shop.upper(), self.path))

    def to_list(self):
        """Converting feed to a raw list of dicts with tags as
        keys and tags as content. Returns list as self.list"""
        shoe_categories = self.shoe_categories
        replace_tags = self.replace_tags
        necessary_tags = list(replace_tags.values())

        # data tags
        category_tag = 'category'
        offer_tag = 'offer'
        raw_category_tag = 'categoryId'
        param_tag = 'param'
        category_id = 'id'
        raw_time_tag = 'modified_time'
        time_tag = 'time'
        size_tag = 'size'
        sizetype_tag = 'sizetype'
        sex_tag = 'sex'
        price_tag = 'price'
        oldprice_tag = 'oldprice'
        discount_tag = 'discount'
        xml = self.path
        if self.type == '.xml':
            if not isfile(xml):
                xml = self.previous_path
                logger.warning('Parsing archived {} feed...'.format(self.shop.upper()))
                logger.info('Parsing {} feed...'.format(self.shop.upper()))
            categories_dict = {}
            offers = []
            raw_size_tag = [k for k, v in replace_tags.items() if v == size_tag][0]

            for event, elem in Etree.iterparse(xml, events=('start',)):

                # parsing and filtering categories
                if elem.tag == category_tag and elem.text is not None and \
                        elem.text.lower() in shoe_categories and \
                        elem.attrib[category_id] is not None:
                    categories_dict[elem.attrib[category_id]] = elem.text.lower()

                # parsing offers
                if elem.tag == offer_tag and elem.find(raw_category_tag) is not None and \
                        elem.find(raw_category_tag).text in categories_dict.keys():
                    offer = {}
                    for el in elem.getchildren():
                        # size & sizetype
                        if (el.tag == param_tag and el.attrib[el.items()[0][0]].lower() == raw_size_tag) \
                                or el.tag.lower() == size_tag:
                            add_size(el, offer, self.shop)
                        # timestamp
                        if el.tag == raw_time_tag and el.text is not None:
                            mod_time = datetime.fromtimestamp(int(el.text)).strftime('%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S')
                            offer[time_tag] = mod_time
                        # other params (gender, size, etc)
                        if el.tag == param_tag:
                            key = el.attrib[el.items()[0][0]]
                            key = el.tag
                        if key.lower() in replace_tags.keys() and key.lower() not in offer.keys():
                            key = replace_tags[key.lower()]
                            offer[key] = el.text
                        # exceptional tag added
                        add_tag_exception(self.shop, el, offer)

                    # discount
                    if price_tag in offer.keys() and oldprice_tag in offer.keys() \
                            and offer[price_tag] is not None and offer[oldprice_tag] is not None:
                        old = float(offer[oldprice_tag])
                        new = float(offer[price_tag])
                        offer[discount_tag] = str(ceil(100 * ((old - new) / old)))

                    # exceptions (gender info, nike pic)
                    add_gender(self.shop, offer)
                    add_exceptions(self.shop, offer)
                    add_categories(categories_dict, offer)
                    add_model(self.shop, offer)
                    if sizetype_tag in offer.keys() and offer[sizetype_tag] in size_type_dict.keys():
                        offer[sizetype_tag] = size_type_dict[offer[sizetype_tag]]
                    if sex_tag in offer.keys() and offer[sex_tag] is not None \
                            and offer[sex_tag].lower() in gender_dict.keys():
                        offer[sex_tag] = gender_dict[offer[sex_tag].lower()]

                    # check for necessary tags
                    if set(necessary_tags).issubset(offer.keys()):
                        if type(offer[size_tag]) is list:
                            for offer_size in offer[size_tag]:
                                sub_offer = offer
                                sub_offer[size_tag] = offer_size
            logger.info('Parsing {0} done\nIn total ({0} offers): {1} items'.format(self.shop.upper(), len(offers)))
            return offers

To use this parser first I run 'python3 upload.py'

import logging
from lib.Feed import Feed
from lib.resources.links import shops

for shop in ['slamdunk', 'newbalance', 'lamoda', 'asos', 'adidas', 'yoox', 'puma',
             'aupontrouge', 'aizel', 'nike', 'sportpoint', 'streetball',  'vans']:

and then parser in test.py

from lib.Feed import Feed
from lib.resources.setup_logger import *

i = 0

shops = ['slamdunk', 'newbalance', 'lamoda', 'asos', 'yoox', 'adidas', 'puma',
         'aupontrouge', 'aizel', 'nike', 'sportpoint', 'streetball',  'vans']

for shop in shops:
    offers = Feed(shop).to_list()
    i += len(offers)
logger.info('total items (offers): {}'.format(i))

Please help me to do this code better, you can just simply give me an advise or show what can be optimized. Thanks a lot!


1 Answer 1


Some suggestions:

  • I don't know whether this is community standard, but I never import * from anything. It's a quick way to get a naming collision, and I prefer being explicit about where my IDE has to look to find the implementation of something. An IDE will let you write out the name of the thing from another file and tell it to add the import statement for you, right at the correctly ordered place in your file.
  • Naming is super duper important for maintainability. Ideally any piece of code should be understandable without knowing much about the context. Finding a balance between long, easily understood names and needless verbosity is an art, but code is read many, many times more than it is written, IDEs will help you complete names, and abbrs are t. b. of readab. ref, for example, could mean any of probably a dozen words, and many of those words have multiple meanings. Expanding the word is very likely going to make the code easier to read. gender and sex are also used interchangeably, which may be fine in casual conversation, but it also makes code harder to read.
  • Regular expressions can also make code really hard to read in no time at all. Once you've got some working code using a regular expression I would recommend converting it into using things like str.split(), str.replace() and the like which are by comparison super easy to read.
  • Type hinting and MyPy with a strict configuration can make this code much easier to read. It might also highlight common problems such as treating convertible types as equal when they really aren't. Things like type(xml_element.text) is not str, for example, are a big no-no in duck typed languages like Python.
  • You have a bunch of magic strings in your code. They would probably work better as constants.
  • There are a lot of duplicate code. Pulling these bits into methods or classes should make the code easier to navigate.
  • Using abspath is unnecessary unless your script actually changes working directory at some point.
  • Feed is a bit of a monster class. It looks like it contains basically every piece of important code in this application, which is a pretty serious anti-pattern.
  • __eq__ is meant to compare object equality. Overriding it to compare the size of two things is seriously harmful to maintainability.
  • Conditionals in __init__ is an anti-pattern - the constructor is meant to unconditionally populate the fields of an object before doing anything non-trivial.
  • Modifying external state in __init__ (mkdir(self.folder)) is a serious anti-pattern. It makes the code essentially impossible to test, and would be very surprising to someone reusing this code.
  • \$\begingroup\$ wow, that's what I exactly needed to know! thanks a lot! got a ton of work to do hah. \$\endgroup\$
    – sshkrv
    Commented Jun 10, 2019 at 10:51
  • \$\begingroup\$ you said that Feed contains every piece of important code (as I thought, that's the point of the class), so do I have to move some of Feed functions to another script files or how to do it better? \$\endgroup\$
    – sshkrv
    Commented Jun 10, 2019 at 11:07
  • \$\begingroup\$ The point of a class is to encapsulate functionality and data which belongs together. Feed does too many things to consider them all closely related: downloading, conversion, archiving, deletion, XML parsing etc. \$\endgroup\$
    – l0b0
    Commented Jun 10, 2019 at 11:09

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