# Binary to Decimal Conversion App

I have created a binary to decimal calculator that needs to follow this spec:

• Arrays may not be used contain the binary digits entered by the user
• Determining the decimal equivalent of a particular binary digit in the sequence must be calculated using a single mathematical function, for example the natural logarithm. It's up to you to figure out which function to use.
• User can enter up to 8 binary digits in one input field
• User must be notified if anything other than a 0 or 1 was entered
• User views the results in a single output field containing the decimal (base 10) equivalent of the binary number that was entered
• User can enter a variable number of binary digits

My code is:

binaryForm = document.getElementById('formComplete');
numberInput = document.getElementById('numberInput');
numberInputButton = document.getElementById('updateNumberBtn');
binaryInput = document.getElementById('binaryInput');
decimalValue = document.getElementById('decimalOutput');

var numberInputValue = numberInput.value;
binaryInput.setAttribute('maxLength', numberInputValue);
});

if (e.keyCode !== 48 && e.keyCode !== 49 && e.keyCode !== 13 && e.keyCode !== 8) {
e.preventDefault();
alert('Only 0 and 1 is allowed');
}

});

e.preventDefault();

if (binaryInput.value == 0) {
} else {
var userInput = binaryInput.value;
var total = 0;
for (var i = 0; i < userInput.length; i++) {
var binaryDigit = parseInt(userInput[i]);
var calcInput = (total * 2) + binaryDigit;
total = calcInput;
}
decimalValue.innerHTML = total;
}
});
body {
background: #2e2e2e;
color: #fff;
font-family: Heebo, sans-serif;
}

h1,
h2,
h3,
h4 {
font-weight: 900;
}

input {
display: block;
margin: 0 auto;
width: 100%;
max-width: 300px;
height: 60px;
}

.form-body {
min-height: 100vh;
display: flex;
flex-direction: column;
justify-content: center;
text-align: center;
}

#numberInput,
#binaryInput {
margin-bottom: 1rem;
border: 0.125rem solid rgba(255,255,255,0.25);
background: rgba(255,255,255,0.05);
color: #fff;
font-size: 2rem;
text-align: center;
font-family: Heebo, sans-serif;
font-weight: 300;
}

#updateNumberBtn,
#convertBtn {
margin-bottom: 1rem;
border: 0.125rem solid rgba(0,128,0,0.75);
color: #fff;
background: rgba(0,128,0,0.75);
text-transform: uppercase;
}

#updateNumberBtn:hover,
#convertBtn:hover {
background: rgba(0,128,0,0.25);
cursor: pointer;
}


<div class="form-body">
<h1>Binary to Decimal Calculator</h1>
<label for="numberInput">Set max number of bits (Max 12 - Default 8)</label>
<input id="numberInput" type="number" value="8" min="1" max="12">
<input id="updateNumberBtn" type="button" value="Set Number of Bits">
<form action="" id="formComplete">
<label for="binaryInput">Enter a binary value</label>
<input id="binaryInput" type="text" size="12" maxlength="8">
<input id="convertBtn" type="submit" value="Convert to Decimal">
</form>
<h2>Decimal Value: <span id="decimalOutput"></span></h2>
</div>

Are there areas that I could improve performance-wise or by making the app easier to operate, such as the part where I am targeting the keys that the user can input.

• You should use the directive "use strict" that will place the JavaScript context into strict mode. This will throw errors for some common bad practices.

• Always declare variables as const, var, or let. If you are in strict mode you will get an error if you don't.

• Don't use alerts or prompts as there is no way to know if they are actually displayed (clients can turn them off) and they are very annoying.

• The key event properties KeyboardEvent.keyCode and KeyboardEvent.charCode have been depreciated and you should not use them. Use KeyboardEvent.code or KeyboardEvent.key instead

• Rather than filter the input via the keybpoard events, listen to the input's keyup and change events, removing bad characters automatically. Use a CSS rule to unhide a warning and a JavaScript setTimeout to hide it again

Filtering keyboard events means you need to check many keys that are valid (left, right, backspace, delete, etc...) which is just unneeded complexity.

• Don't wait for the user to click "Convert to Decimal", display the output automatically. This makes it a lot friendlier to use.

• JavaScript can convert binary strings to decimal for you using parseInt. The second argument is the radix (AKA base) of the number that is being parsed.

• If you are just setting text (no HTML) use the elements textContent rather than innerHTML

## Rewrite

The rewrite is following the points you have set-out in your question. I have not implemented how your code differs from these points.

The rewrite uses

• a RegExp to test and filter the input.
• a ternary expression to create the decimal value as parseInt will return NaN for empty strings. The ternary checks if the string is empty evaluating to "" or if there is a number the ternary evaluates to the decimal value.
• HTMLInputElement.focus (inherited from HTMLElement) to focus the input element when loaded.

I have modified the HTML and CSS to fit the snippet window a little better.

"use strict";
const binaryInput = document.getElementById("binaryInput");
const decimalOutput = document.getElementById("decimalOutput");
const inputWarning = document.getElementById("inputWarning");
binaryInput.focus();

const WARNING_TIME = 2000; // in ms
var warningTimer;
function hidWarning() {
}
function showWarning() {
clearTimeout(warningTimer);
warningTimer = setTimeout(hidWarning, WARNING_TIME);
inputWarning.classList.remove("hideWarning");
}
function update() {
var value = binaryInput.value;
if (/[^01]/g.test(value)){
binaryInput.value = value = value.replace(/[^01]/g, "");
showWarning();
}
decimalOutput.textContent = value === "" ? "" : parseInt(value, 2);
}
body {
background: #2e2e2e;
color: #fff;
font-family: Heebo, sans-serif;
}
.form-body {
display: flex;
flex-direction: column;
text-align: center;
}
input {
margin: 0 auto;
width: 100%;
max-width: 300px;
border: 0.125rem solid rgba(255,255,255,0.25);
background: rgba(255,255,255,0.05);
color: #fff;
font-size: 2rem;
text-align: center;
font-weight: 300;
}

.inputWarning { color: #F88 }
.hideWarning { display: none }
<div class="form-body">
<h2>Binary to Decimal Calculator</h2>
<label for="binaryInput">Enter a binary value<span id="inputWarning" class="inputWarning hideWarning"> [Only valid digits 0 and 1 permitted]</span></label>
<input id="binaryInput" type="text" size="8" maxlength="8">
<h3>Decimal Value: <span id="decimalOutput"></span></h3>
</div>

• Thank you, that was the type of in-depth feedback I was hoping for. It's a much smoother operation. I think the only area I am not too familiar with is the RegExp but this will come with time May 7, 2019 at 22:37
• When you give an element an id, it already exists as a property on the window object. You don't need to use getElementById. Since you are using the same name you can just remove those 3 lines entirely. By the way, your opening and closing tag doesn't match for the headings. May 8, 2019 at 8:13
• @Kruga If I don't add a detailed explanation regarding direct referencing I get down-voted for using them eg codereview.stackexchange.com/a/184295/120556 I volunteer answers and time is not always available to provide a defense of direct referencing as in the following codereview.stackexchange.com/a/217497/120556 May 8, 2019 at 15:28