# 4 solutions to leetcode 202. Happy Number have almost same performance

I am working on an easy math question Happy number Happy Number - LeetCode

1. Happy Number

Write an algorithm to determine if a number is "happy".

A happy number is a number defined by the following process: Starting with any positive integer, replace the number by the sum of the squares of its digits, and repeat the process until the number equals 1 (where it will stay), or it loops endlessly in a cycle which does not include 1. Those numbers for which this process ends in 1 are happy numbers.

Example:

Input: 19
Output: true
Explanation:
1² + 9² = 82
8² + 2² = 68
6² + 8² = 100
1² + 0² + 0² = 1


My solutions

• Solution 1, 28ms 12.1mb

• string operations
class Solution1:
def isHappy(self, n):
s = set()
while n != 1:
if n in s: return False
n = sum([int(i) ** 2 for i in str(n)])
else:
return True

• Solution 2, 24ms, 12.3mb
class Solution2:
def isHappy(self, n):
"""
:type n: int
:rtype: bool
"""
s = set()
while n != 1:
if n in s: return False

_sum = 0
while n:
_sum += (n % 10) ** 2
n //= 10
n = _sum

return n == 1

• Solution 3 the save as solution 2 minor changes (24ms, 12.3mb)
class Solution3:
def isHappy(self, n):
"""
:type n: int
:rtype: bool
"""
s = set()
while n:
if 1 in s:
return True
if n in s:
return False
_sum = 0
while n:
_sum += (n%10)**2 #leave unit digit
n //= 10 #remvoe unit digit
n = _sum

• Solution 4 without extra space(24ms, 12.3mb)
class Solution4:
def isHappy(self, n):
"""
:type n: int
:rtype: bool
"""
while n != 1 and n != 4:
_sum = 0
while n :
_sum += (n % 10) * (n % 10)
n //= 10
n = _sum

return n == 1


TestCase

class MyCase(unittest.TestCase):
def setUp(self):
self.solution = Solution3()

def test_1(self):
n = 19
check = self.solution.isHappy(n)
self.assertTrue(check)


It's interesting that the last 3 solutions shared the same performance, though try best possibility to improve it.

• In general, you should never be using a benchmark that takes less than a second. Timings below that are way too variable. – Oscar Smith Apr 4 at 18:29

Solution #2:

class Solution2:
def isHappy(self, n):
# ...
while n != 1:
if n in s: return False
# ...

return n == 1


You are looping while n != 1, without any break statements. There is no need to test n == 1 at the return statement at the end. Just return True.

Solution #3 returns None if 0 is given as input, instead of returning True or False.

Solution #4 becomes an endless loop if 0 is given as input.

Are there any other stopping conditions other that n == 0, n == 1 or n == 4? It isn't clear that all unhappy numbers result in a loop containing the value 4, so the validity of this approach is in question.

Update: Actually Wikipedia provides a clear argument that unhappy numbers will arrive in a loop containing the value 4, so this approach is valid, but should included a comment with a link to that proof.

In all your solutions, your loop is testing at least two conditions, such as both n != 1 and n is s. Why not initialize s to contain a 1 (or even just leave it as an empty set), and then only test n in s. No special cases.

def is_happy(n):
s = { 1 }

while n not in s:
n = sum(i * i for i in map(int, str(n)))

return n == 1


Update:

Since Wikipedea has proof that all positive unhappy numbers end in the sequence 4 → 16 → 37 → 58 → 89 → 145 → 42 → 20 → 4 → ..., and happy numbers end in the sequence 1 → 1 → ..., you can create a set of these termination values (including 0 → 0 → ...), and no longer needed to maintain the set of "seen" values. By using all numbers in the unhappy loop, we can terminate the search up to 8 iterations earlier over just checking for n == 1 and n == 4.

def is_happy(num):
# See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Happy_number#Sequence_behavior
terminal = { 0, 1, 4, 16, 20, 37, 42, 58, 89, 145 }

while num not in terminal:
num = sum(i * i for i in map(int, str(num)))

return n == 1


Finally: