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I just completed Project Euler Problem 81 in Haskell:

In the 5 by 5 matrix below,

131   673 234 103 18
201   96  342 965 150
630   803 746 422 111
537   699 497 121 956
805   732 524 37  331

the minimal path sum from the top left to the bottom right, by only moving to the right and down, is

131 → 201 → 96 → 342 → 746 → 422 → 121 → 37 → 331

and is equal to 2427.

Find the minimal path sum, in matrix.txt, a 31K text file containing a 80 by 80 matrix, from the top left to the bottom right by only moving right and down.

I'm looking for feedback on a few specific aspects, but I appreciate general feedback and style suggestions as well. The raw code is available here. The program input is available here; the program needs to be run in the same folder as the input file.

The solution has two main parts:

  1. Reading a CSV file containing an 80x80 grid of integers into an array
  2. Traversing the array to accumulate the minimal path sum

{-|
file:   p081.hs
title:  Path sum: two ways
date:   December 9, 2018

link:   <https://projecteuler.net/problem=81>
-}

{-# LANGUAGE OverloadedStrings #-}

import           Control.Arrow     (first, (&&&), (***))
import           Control.Monad     (join, liftM, mapM)
import           Data.Array        (Array, Ix, array, bounds, (!))
import           Data.Function     (on)
import           Data.Ix           (inRange)
import           Data.List         (groupBy)
import           Data.Maybe        (fromJust)
import           Data.Text         (Text)
import qualified Data.Text         as Text (lines, null, splitOn)
import qualified Data.Text.IO      as TextIO (readFile)
import           Data.Text.Read    (decimal)

type Matrix a = Array (Int, Int) a

-- the shape of a matrix stored in a space-separated text file
textMatrixShape :: Text -> (Int, Int)
textMatrixShape = (length &&& length . Text.splitOn "," . head) . Text.lines

-- map over a monomorphic 2-tuple
mapTuple :: (a -> b) -> (a, a) -> (b, b)
mapTuple = join (***)

textMatrixBounds :: Text -> ((Int, Int), (Int, Int))
textMatrixBounds = (,) (0,0) . mapTuple (subtract 1) . textMatrixShape

-- from <https://hackage.haskell.org/package/either-5.0.1>
rightToMaybe :: Either a b -> Maybe b
rightToMaybe = either (const Nothing) Just

textMatrixElements :: Text -> Maybe [Int]
textMatrixElements = rightToMaybe
                   . fmap (map fst)
                   . mapM decimal
                   . concatMap (Text.splitOn ",")
                   . Text.lines

grid :: (Int, Int) -> [(Int, Int)]
grid (m, n) = [(i, j) | i <- [0..m - 1], j <- [0..n - 1]]

-- textMatrixAssocs :: Text -> Maybe [((Int, Int), Int)]
-- textMatrixAssocs t = liftM (zip ((grid . textMatrixShape) t)) (textMatrixElements t)

textMatrixAssocs :: Text -> Maybe [((Int, Int), Int)]
textMatrixAssocs = uncurry fmap . first zip
                 . (grid . textMatrixShape &&& textMatrixElements)

-- textMatrix :: Text -> Maybe (Matrix Int)
-- textMatrix t = liftM (array (textMatrixBounds t)) (textMatrixAssocs t)

textMatrix :: Text -> Maybe (Matrix Int)
textMatrix = uncurry fmap . first array . (textMatrixBounds &&& textMatrixAssocs)

rightAndDown :: Num a => Matrix a -> ((Int, Int), a) -> [((Int, Int), a)]
rightAndDown m (i, s) = [(i', s + m ! i')
                        | i' <- [fmap (+ 1) i, first (+ 1) i]
                        , inRange (bounds m) i']

-- | Blackbird combinator
(...) :: (c -> d) -> (a -> b -> c) -> a -> b -> d
(...) = (.) . (.)
infix 8 ...

updateFrontier :: (Num a, Ord a) => Matrix a -> [((Int, Int), a)] -> [((Int, Int), a)]
updateFrontier = map minimum . groupBy ((==) `on` fst) ... concatMap . rightAndDown

minimalPathSum :: (Num a, Ord a) => Matrix a -> a
minimalPathSum m = go [((0, 0), m ! (0, 0))]
  where
    go f = case f' of
      [] -> (minimum . map snd) f
      _  -> go f'
      where
        f' = updateFrontier m f

p081 :: IO Int
p081 = do
  t <- TextIO.readFile "p081_matrix.txt"
  return (minimalPathSum . fromJust . textMatrix $ t)

main :: IO ()
main = do
  print =<< p081

Questions

I tried to use a point-free style wherever I could. Are there more elegant ways to do this? Is it too obscure?

I used Text and Array for performance reasons. Are there any ways that I could further improve performance without re-writing the program?

In the first part, the file is read using Data.Text.IO.readFile. The shape of the text matrix is estimated using TextMatrixShape, which is used to determine the bounds of the array in TextMatrixBounds. This is not safe, as the number of elements in each line of the text file is not guaranteed to be the same in every line in general. Is there a better way to get the shape of the array?

The elements are extracted from the text file using textMatrixElements and converted into an association list in textMatrixAssocs. I'm worried that this might be an inefficient way to build an array, as the array appears to me to be traversed multiple times. I would greatly appreciate it if someone could shed some light on this.

What of my use of Maybe in my text* functions? Is this appropriate?

In textMatrixElements, I use the decimal reader from Data.Text.Read to convert text values into integers. Is there a nice way to make this function more polymorphic?

In the second part, I accumulate the minimum path sum to each point in a frontier, which is an association list of array indices and path sums. In rightAndDown, I construct a list of next moves from a frontier element. For every next move, I'm checking whether the index is in the bounds of the matrix m. Is this wasterful?

Note that I try to solve Project Euler problems without external dependencies, and I'm interested in learning how to do things in the general case, not just to solve this particular problem. I want to hardcode as little as possible.

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  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ Point free is cute, but only when it adds clarity. updateFrontier pushes that boundary. \$\endgroup\$ – Alex Reinking Dec 11 '18 at 7:17

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