I would like to compare the min/max values of a time-series with a test time-series. Additionally, I would like to compare the time of the "peaks". However, I'm having trouble extracting these features from a Pandas DataFrame.

Given the following data:

def fake_phase_data():
    in_li = []
    sample_points = 24 * 4

    for day, bias in zip((11, 12, 13), (.5, .7, 1.)):
        day_time = datetime(2016, 6, day, 0, 0, 0)
        for x in range(int(sample_points)):

            in_li.append((day_time + timedelta(minutes=15*x),
                          bias * np.sin(2 * np.pi * x / sample_points + (1.2*bias)),

    fake_df = pd.DataFrame(in_li, columns=("time", "phase_sig", "bias")).set_index("time")
    return fake_df

fp = fake_phase_data()
# Convert to pivot-table with 24 hour columns
dfs = {
    col: pd.pivot_table(
    for col in fp.columns
ddf = pd.concat(dfs, axis=1)

Which looks like:

for i in range(len(ddf)):


I process the data:

def col_peaks(df, cols, peak_func):
    return [list(getattr(df[col], peak_func)(axis=1).values) for col in cols]

def peak_vals(df, cols, t_peak):
    peak_v = []

    for c_i, col in enumerate(cols):
        vals = df[col].values
        peak_idx = t_peak[c_i]
        peak_v.append(list(vals[np.arange(len(peak_idx)), peak_idx]))

    return peak_v

# I may want to process multiple columns later
# but let's focus on the single-column case
x_cols = ["phase_sig"]

# Technically, I also want the minimum
# but let's focus on the maximum case first
orig_t_max = col_peaks(ddf, x_cols, "idxmax")
print("Orig t_max", orig_t_max)

orig_v_max = peak_vals(ddf, x_cols, orig_t_max)
print("Orig v_max", orig_v_max)

# actual test data will be a single row in a dataframe
# but this test is fine for now
test_df = ddf.iloc[[0]]
test_t_max = col_peaks(test_df, x_cols, "idxmax")
print("Test t_max", test_t_max)

test_v_max = peak_vals(test_df, x_cols, test_t_max)
print("Test v_max", test_v_max)

And get the result:

Orig t_max [[4, 3, 1]]
Orig v_max [[0.4985414229286749, 0.6989567830263389, 0.9940657122457474]]
Test t_max [[4]]
Test v_max [[0.4985414229286749]]

How do I get both of these values without the weird loops I'm doing? I know I could make them more compact by using a list-comprehension, but I'd rather get rid of them altogether. Is there a way to deal with both DataFrame and Series without the awkward if-statement I use in col_peaks and peak_vals?

  • \$\begingroup\$ You could avoid using Series by e.g. .iloc[[0]] instead of .iloc[0], then just remove the two else branches. \$\endgroup\$ – ferada Sep 28 '18 at 22:09
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ @ferada you are correct. I have edited the question accordingly. I would have sworn I tried that... \$\endgroup\$ – Seanny123 Oct 1 '18 at 21:59
  • \$\begingroup\$ I can add a reference implementation if requested, but you can numerically differentiate this (using vectorized operations). When the first derivative is zero (or zero crossing, since this is numerical differentiation), it's an inflection point (peak or valley). The sign of the second derivative at that position tells you whether its a peak or valley. You can calculate the numerical derivative by doing [x_(t+1) - x_t] / [(t+1) - t] \$\endgroup\$ – Zack Oct 5 '18 at 14:40
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Zack if you sketch out a basic answer, I can award the bounty to you. But yes, you're right, I forgot I could just do this operation with derivation. \$\endgroup\$ – Seanny123 Oct 5 '18 at 14:56
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Seanny123 I don't have time to do one before this closes (I'd have to brush up on pandas syntax; I haven't used it in a few years), but glad I could help :) \$\endgroup\$ – Zack Oct 5 '18 at 15:01

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