31
\$\begingroup\$

I am looking to submit the following code (adapted to fit into java.util obviously) which significantly improves performance and reduces useless allocations of java.util.UUID. Help me find the bugs and stupidity before I submit myself to the judgment of the JDK maintainers! :-)

         benchmark instances  Bytes    ns linear runtime
 JdkUuidFromString     51.00 1544.0 608.2 ==============================
NessUuidFromString      2.00   72.0 179.1 ========
   JdkUuidToString     31.00 1720.0 321.4 ===============
  NessUuidToString      3.00  200.0  51.5 ==

FromString gets a 3x speedup and 1/25th the object allocations. ToString gets a 6x speedup and 1/10th of the object allocations.

And here's the code:

/**
 * A class that provides an alternate implementation of {@link
 * UUID#fromString(String)} and {@link UUID#toString()}.
 *
 * <p> The version in the JDK uses {@link String#split(String)}
 * which does not compile the regular expression that is used for splitting
 * the UUID string and results in the allocation of multiple strings in a
 * string array. We decided to write {@link NessUUID} when we ran into
 * performance issues with the garbage produced by the JDK class.
 *
 */
public class NessUUID {
    private NessUUID() {}

    private static final int NUM_ALPHA_DIFF = 'A' - '9' - 1;
    private static final int LOWER_UPPER_DIFF = 'a' - 'A';

    // FROM STRING

    public static UUID fromString(String str) {
        int dashCount = 4;
        int [] dashPos = new int [6];
        dashPos[0] = -1;
        dashPos[5] = str.length();

        for (int i = str.length()-1; i >= 0; i--) {
            if (str.charAt(i) == '-') {
                if (dashCount == 0) {
                    throw new IllegalArgumentException("Invalid UUID string: " + str);
                }
                dashPos[dashCount--] = i;
            }
        }

        if (dashCount > 0) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Invalid UUID string: " + str);
        }

        long mostSigBits = decode(str, dashPos, 0) & 0xffffffffL;
        mostSigBits <<= 16;
        mostSigBits |= (decode(str, dashPos, 1) & 0xffffL);
        mostSigBits <<= 16;
        mostSigBits |= (decode(str,  dashPos, 2) & 0xffffL);

        long leastSigBits = (decode(str,  dashPos, 3) & 0xffffL);
        leastSigBits <<= 48;
        leastSigBits |= (decode(str,  dashPos, 4) & 0xffffffffffffL);

        return new UUID(mostSigBits, leastSigBits);
    }

    private static long decode(final String str, final int [] dashPos, final int field) {
        int start = dashPos[field]+1;
        int end = dashPos[field+1];
        if (start >= end) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Invalid UUID string: " + str);
        }
        long curr = 0;
        for (int i = start; i < end; i++) {
            int x = getNibbleFromChar(str.charAt(i));
            curr <<= 4;
            if (curr < 0) {
                throw new NumberFormatException("long overflow");
            }
            curr |= x;
        }
        return curr;
    }

    static int getNibbleFromChar(final char c)
    {
        int x = c - '0';
        if (x > 9) {
            x -= NUM_ALPHA_DIFF; // difference between '9' and 'A'
            if (x > 15) {
                x -= LOWER_UPPER_DIFF; // difference between 'a' and 'A'
            }
            if (x < 10) {
                throw new IllegalArgumentException(c + " is not a valid character for an UUID string");
            }
        }

        if (x < 0 || x > 15) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException(c + " is not a valid character for an UUID string");
        }

        return x;
    }

    // TO STRING

    public static String toString(UUID uuid)
    {
        return toString(uuid.getMostSignificantBits(), uuid.getLeastSignificantBits());
    }

    /** Roughly patterned (read: stolen) from java.util.UUID and java.lang.Long. */
    public static String toString(long msb, long lsb)
    {
        char[] uuidChars = new char[36];

        digits(uuidChars, 0, 8, msb >> 32);
        uuidChars[8] = '-';
        digits(uuidChars, 9, 4, msb >> 16);
        uuidChars[13] = '-';
        digits(uuidChars, 14, 4, msb);
        uuidChars[18] = '-';
        digits(uuidChars, 19, 4, lsb >> 48);
        uuidChars[23] = '-';
        digits(uuidChars, 24, 12, lsb);

        return new String(uuidChars);
    }

    private static void digits(char[] dest, int offset, int digits, long val) {
        long hi = 1L << (digits * 4);
        toUnsignedString(dest, offset, digits, hi | (val & (hi - 1)), 4);
    }

    private final static char[] DIGITS = {
        '0' , '1' , '2' , '3' , '4' , '5' ,
        '6' , '7' , '8' , '9' , 'a' , 'b' ,
        'c' , 'd' , 'e' , 'f' , 'g' , 'h' ,
        'i' , 'j' , 'k' , 'l' , 'm' , 'n' ,
        'o' , 'p' , 'q' , 'r' , 's' , 't' ,
        'u' , 'v' , 'w' , 'x' , 'y' , 'z'
    };

    private static void toUnsignedString(char[] dest, int offset, int len, long i, int shift) {
        int charPos = len;
        int radix = 1 << shift;
        long mask = radix - 1;
        do {
            dest[offset + --charPos] = DIGITS[(int)(i & mask)];
            i >>>= shift;
        } while (i != 0 && charPos > 0);
    }
}
\$\endgroup\$
2
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ In Java 7 String.split() has a "fastpath" improvement for single character patterns that don't include meta chars. In this case, splitting on '-' will take the fastpath. This fastpath avoids using the regex engine and improves performance in trivial spilts. Still, good to see these improvements. \$\endgroup\$ – John McCarthy Mar 1 '13 at 16:52
  • \$\begingroup\$ toString(long msb, long lsb) should be private. \$\endgroup\$ – 200_success Aug 26 '13 at 8:05
13
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I could not get Caliper running, but hacked my own test:

My initial results were:

warmup
JdkFrom: 1787.38 JdkTo: 635.12 NessFrom: 460.15 NessTo: 183.67 [-4552303853801426784, 69220000, -4552303853801426784, 69220000]
Real Run
JdkFrom: 1415.68 JdkTo: 553.28 NessFrom: 426.29 NessTo:  94.69 [-4552303853801426784, 69220000, -4552303853801426784, 69220000]
JdkFrom: 1394.24 JdkTo: 387.14 NessFrom: 340.78 NessTo:  59.33 [-4552303853801426784, 69220000, -4552303853801426784, 69220000]
JdkFrom: 1378.38 JdkTo: 339.20 NessFrom: 325.73 NessTo:  59.20 [-4552303853801426784, 69220000, -4552303853801426784, 69220000]
JdkFrom: 1381.61 JdkTo: 334.28 NessFrom: 389.30 NessTo:  59.09 [-4552303853801426784, 69220000, -4552303853801426784, 69220000]

So, at face value, yes, your algorithm is nicely faster.

As for the code review, I have some comments:

fromString()

  1. I don't like that you ignore the required format for UUID's, essentially you say if it has 4 dashes it's cool, but, really, the number of digites between dashes is significant, and you ignore that.
  2. I feel that you should be calculating the long bits at the same time as you are validating and counting the dashes. Repeating the loops afterwards seems redundant.
  3. If you are looking for raw performance, a trick I have found out is that lookup tables make a big difference... I will show an example in a bit.

toString()

  1. I don't like the public toString(long,long) method. This is not 'symmetrical'. Only the toString(UUID) should be public.
  2. The DIGITS code appears to be designed to satisfy many different radices (radixes, what's the plural?). This makes it a little bulky for this special case.
  3. There are too many levels of method calls. It can be much shallower.

Consider:

I had a hack at this and decided I could do better.... consider the following results:

warmup
JdkFrom: 1929.14 JdkTo: 542.10 NessFrom: 270.43 NessTo: 175.71 [2254274162472357232, 70459000, 2254274162472357232, 70459000]
Real Run
JdkFrom: 1569.85 JdkTo: 404.93 NessFrom: 249.37 NessTo:  45.94 [2254274162472357232, 70459000, 2254274162472357232, 70459000]
JdkFrom: 1528.79 JdkTo: 279.55 NessFrom: 114.74 NessTo:  44.71 [2254274162472357232, 70459000, 2254274162472357232, 70459000]
JdkFrom: 1657.85 JdkTo: 271.24 NessFrom: 118.20 NessTo:  44.43 [2254274162472357232, 70459000, 2254274162472357232, 70459000]
JdkFrom: 1563.52 JdkTo: 273.69 NessFrom: 140.96 NessTo:  46.46 [2254274162472357232, 70459000, 2254274162472357232, 70459000]

This is almost three times faster than your version for the fromString, and another 0.2-times faster than your toString.

Here is the code that is (in my experience) about as fast as you can get with Java:

package uuid;

import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.UUID;

/**
 * A class that provides an alternate implementation of {@link
 * UUID#fromString(String)} and {@link UUID#toString()}.
 *
 * <p> The version in the JDK uses {@link String#split(String)}
 * which does not compile the regular expression that is used for splitting
 * the UUID string and results in the allocation of multiple strings in a
 * string array. We decided to write {@link NessUUID} when we ran into
 * performance issues with the garbage produced by the JDK class.
 *
 */
public class NessUUID {
    private NessUUID() {}

    // lookup is an array indexed by the **char**, and it has
    // valid values set with the decimal value of the hex char.
    private static final long[] lookup = buildLookup();
    private static final int DASH = -1;
    private static final int ERROR = -2;
    private static final long[] buildLookup() {
        long [] lu = new long[128];
        Arrays.fill(lu, ERROR);
        lu['0'] = 0;
        lu['1'] = 1;
        lu['2'] = 2;
        lu['3'] = 3;
        lu['4'] = 4;
        lu['5'] = 5;
        lu['6'] = 6;
        lu['7'] = 7;
        lu['8'] = 8;
        lu['9'] = 9;
        lu['a'] = 10;
        lu['b'] = 11;
        lu['c'] = 12;
        lu['d'] = 13;
        lu['e'] = 14;
        lu['f'] = 15;
        lu['A'] = 10;
        lu['B'] = 11;
        lu['C'] = 12;
        lu['D'] = 13;
        lu['E'] = 14;
        lu['F'] = 15;
        lu['-'] = DASH;
        return lu;
    }

    // FROM STRING

    public static UUID fromString(final String str) {
        final int len = str.length();
        if (len != 36) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Invalid UUID string (expected to be 36 characters long)");
        }
        final long[] vals = new long[2];
        int shift = 60;
        int index = 0;
        for (int i = 0; i < len; i++) {
            final int c = str.charAt(i);
            if (c >= lookup.length || lookup[c] == ERROR) {
                throw new IllegalArgumentException("Invalid UUID string (unexpected '" + str.charAt(i) + "' at position " + i + " -> " + str + " )");
            }

            if (lookup[c] == DASH) {
                if ((i - 8) % 5 != 0) {
                    throw new IllegalArgumentException("Invalid UUID string (unexpected '-' at position " + i + " -> " + str + " )");
                }
                continue;
            }
            vals[index] |= lookup[c] << shift;
            shift -= 4;
            if (shift < 0) {
                shift = 60;
                index++;
            }
        }
        return new UUID(vals[0], vals[1]);
    }

    // TO STRING

    // recode is 2-byte arrays representing the hex representation of every byte value (all 256)
    private static final char[][] recode = buildByteBlocks();
    private static char[][] buildByteBlocks() {
        final char[][] ret = new char[256][];
        for (int i = 0; i < ret.length; i++) {
            ret[i] = String.format("%02x", i).toCharArray();
        }
        return ret;
    }

    public static final String toString(final UUID uuid) {
        long msb = uuid.getMostSignificantBits();
        long lsb = uuid.getLeastSignificantBits();
        char[] uuidChars = new char[36];
        int cursor = uuidChars.length;
        while (cursor > 24 ) {
            cursor -= 2;
            System.arraycopy(recode[(int)(lsb & 0xff)], 0, uuidChars, cursor, 2);
            lsb >>>= 8;
        }
        uuidChars[--cursor] = '-';
        while (cursor > 19) {
            cursor -= 2;
            System.arraycopy(recode[(int)(lsb & 0xff)], 0, uuidChars, cursor, 2);
            lsb >>>= 8;
        }
        uuidChars[--cursor] = '-';
        while (cursor > 14) {
            cursor -= 2;
            System.arraycopy(recode[(int)(msb & 0xff)], 0, uuidChars, cursor, 2);
            msb >>>= 8;
        }
        uuidChars[--cursor] = '-';
        while (cursor > 9) {
            cursor -= 2;
            System.arraycopy(recode[(int)(msb & 0xff)], 0, uuidChars, cursor, 2);
            msb >>>= 8;
        }
        uuidChars[--cursor] = '-';
        while (cursor > 0) {
            cursor -= 2;
            System.arraycopy(recode[(int)(msb & 0xff)], 0, uuidChars, cursor, 2);
            msb >>>= 8;
        }
        return new String(uuidChars);
    }

}

For your amusement, here's my test class (no Caliper, I know):

package uuid;

import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.UUID;


public class PerformanceComparison 
{

    private final int N_UUIDS = 1000;
    private final UUID[] testUuids = new UUID[N_UUIDS];
    private final String[] testStrings = new String[N_UUIDS];

    public void setup () {
        for (int i = 0; i < N_UUIDS; i++)
        {
            testUuids[i] = UUID.randomUUID();
            testStrings[i] = testUuids[i].toString();
        }
    }

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        PerformanceComparison pc = new PerformanceComparison();

        final UUID uuidj = UUID.randomUUID();
        String valj = uuidj.toString();
        String valn = NessUUID.toString(uuidj);
        UUID uuidn = NessUUID.fromString(valn);
        if (!valj.equals(valn)) {
            throw new IllegalStateException("Illegal conversion");
        }
        if (!uuidj.equals(uuidn)) {
            throw new IllegalStateException("Illegal conversion");
        }

        pc.setup();
        final int reps = 1000000;

        System.out.println("    warmup");
        pc.runAll(reps);
        System.out.println("    Real Run");
        pc.runAll(reps);
        pc.runAll(reps);
        pc.runAll(reps);
        pc.runAll(reps);

    }

    private final void runAll(final int reps) {
        long[] accum = new long[4];
        System.out.printf("    JdkFrom: %6.2f JdkTo: %6.2f NessFrom: %6.2f NessTo: %6.2f %s\n", 
                timeJdkUuidFromString(reps, accum, 0) / 1000000.0,
                timeJdkUuidToString(reps, accum, 1) / 1000000.0,
                timeNessUuidFromString(reps, accum, 2) / 1000000.0,
                timeNessUuidToString(reps, accum, 3) / 1000000.0,
                Arrays.toString(accum));
    }

    public long timeJdkUuidFromString(int reps, long[] accum2, int j)
    {
        long accum = 0;
        long start = System.nanoTime();
        for (int i = 0; i < reps; i++)
        {
            accum += UUID.fromString(testStrings[i % N_UUIDS]).getMostSignificantBits();
        }
        accum2[j] = accum;
        return System.nanoTime() - start;
    }

    public long timeJdkUuidToString(int reps, long[] accum2, int j)
    {
        long accum = 0;
        long start = System.nanoTime();
        for (int i = 0; i < reps; i++)
        {
            accum += testUuids[i % N_UUIDS].toString().charAt(0);
        }
        accum2[j] = accum;
        return System.nanoTime() - start;
    }

    public long timeNessUuidFromString(int reps, long[] accum2, int j)
    {
        long accum = 0;
        long start = System.nanoTime();
        for (int i = 0; i < reps; i++)
        {
            accum += NessUUID.fromString(testStrings[i % N_UUIDS]).getMostSignificantBits();
        }
        accum2[j] = accum;
        return System.nanoTime() - start;
    }

    public long timeNessUuidToString(int reps, long[] accum2, int j)
    {

        long accum = 0;
        long start = System.nanoTime();
        for (int i = 0; i < reps; i++)
        {
            accum += NessUUID.toString(testUuids[i % N_UUIDS]).charAt(0);
        }
        accum2[j] = accum;
        return System.nanoTime() - start;
    }

}
\$\endgroup\$
1
  • \$\begingroup\$ See my answer below for something even faster. Your logic in iterating through the string characters results in a lot of extra operations that impede performance. Also, use of the modulus operator hurts performance. It is a lot quicker to just hardcode all the indexes used in the UUID string. \$\endgroup\$ – user1585916 Apr 19 at 15:34
2
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Improvements to the JDK have made the JDK's UUID.toString() much more performant. It now (JDK 11) significantly outperforms any of these homegrown methods. Unforntunately, the built-in UUID.fromString() still performs pretty poorly. The OP and @rolfl's solutions are faster than the JDK's, but there is still room for improvement. Switching to a two char lookup table (1 byte) significantly improves performance (at the cost of some more memory). Two characters appears to be the sweet spot. In my tests, attempting to use a table for more than two hex characters at a time did not improve performance any further.

import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.UUID;

/**
 * Unfortunately, the built-in java UUID.fromString(name) is not very efficient.
 * This method is approximately 80% faster. The only cost is the static lookup
 * table, which consumes around 52K of memory. Useful for very high throughput
 * applications.
 */
public class UUIDUtils {

    // Lookup table of all possible byte values. 
    // Type of array needs to be short in order to be able to use -1 for invalid values.
    // We can also use a byte array of nibble values (single hex character), but that
    // is about 30% slower - although it does consume significantly less memory.
    private static final short[] HEX_LOOKUP = new short[indexVal('f', 'f') + 1];
    static {
        Arrays.fill(HEX_LOOKUP, (short) -1);
        char[] chars = {
                '0', '1', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8', '9', 
                'A', 'B', 'C', 'D', 'E', 'F', 'a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f' };
        for (char c : chars) {
            for (char c1 : chars) {
                int i = indexVal(c, c1);
                HEX_LOOKUP[i] = (short) (Character.digit(c, 16) << 4 | Character.digit(c1, 16));
            }
        }
    }

    public static UUID fromStringFast(String string) {
        if (string.length() != 36) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Invalid length for UUID string: " + string + " :" + string.length());
        }
        long msb = toByte(string.charAt(0), string.charAt(1));
        msb = msb << 8 | toByte(string.charAt(2), string.charAt(3));
        msb = msb << 8 | toByte(string.charAt(4), string.charAt(5));
        msb = msb << 8 | toByte(string.charAt(6), string.charAt(7));
        checkDash(string.charAt(8));
        msb = msb << 8 | toByte(string.charAt(9), string.charAt(10));
        msb = msb << 8 | toByte(string.charAt(11), string.charAt(12));
        checkDash(string.charAt(13));
        msb = msb << 8 | toByte(string.charAt(14), string.charAt(15));
        msb = msb << 8 | toByte(string.charAt(16), string.charAt(17));
        checkDash(string.charAt(18));
        long lsb = toByte(string.charAt(19), string.charAt(20));
        lsb = lsb << 8 | toByte(string.charAt(21), string.charAt(22));
        checkDash(string.charAt(23));
        lsb = lsb << 8 | toByte(string.charAt(24), string.charAt(25));
        lsb = lsb << 8 | toByte(string.charAt(26), string.charAt(27));
        lsb = lsb << 8 | toByte(string.charAt(28), string.charAt(29));
        lsb = lsb << 8 | toByte(string.charAt(30), string.charAt(31));
        lsb = lsb << 8 | toByte(string.charAt(32), string.charAt(33));
        lsb = lsb << 8 | toByte(string.charAt(34), string.charAt(35));

        return new UUID(msb, lsb);
    }

    private static final int toByte(char hi, char low) {
        try {
            short b = HEX_LOOKUP[indexVal(hi, low)];
            if (b == -1) {
                throw new IllegalArgumentException("Invalid hex chars: " + hi + low);
            }
            return b;
        } catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException e) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Invalid hex chars: " + hi + low);
        }
    }

    private static final int indexVal(char hi, char low) {
        return hi << 8 | low;
    }
    
    private static void checkDash(char c) {
        if(c != '-') {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Expected '-', but found '" + c + "'");
        }
    }
}

Even more performance can be squeezed out by removing all error checking. (Removing all error checking would also allow byte[] to be used for the lookup table instead of short[], which also saves memory). This would increase throughput by about 25%. However, that is not advisable unless you can guarantee the validity of your input via some other means.

\$\endgroup\$

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