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Out of boredom I decided to make simple minesweeper in python. I decided to do it using only libraries which are included in standard installation on Windows.

I have overall been coding in Python for a while now, but decided to give my code for review to see whatever my coding skills can be improved.

import tkinter, configparser, random, os, tkinter.messagebox, tkinter.simpledialog

window = tkinter.Tk()

window.title("Minesweeper")

#prepare default values

rows = 10
cols = 10
mines = 10

field = []
buttons = []

colors = ['#FFFFFF', '#0000FF', '#008200', '#FF0000', '#000084', '#840000', '#008284', '#840084', '#000000']

gameover = False
customsizes = []


def createMenu():
    menubar = tkinter.Menu(window)
    menusize = tkinter.Menu(window, tearoff=0)
    menusize.add_command(label="small (10x10 with 10 mines)", command=lambda: setSize(10, 10, 10))
    menusize.add_command(label="medium (20x20 with 40 mines)", command=lambda: setSize(20, 20, 40))
    menusize.add_command(label="big (35x35 with 120 mines)", command=lambda: setSize(35, 35, 120))
    menusize.add_command(label="custom", command=setCustomSize)
    menusize.add_separator()
    for x in range(0, len(customsizes)):
        menusize.add_command(label=str(customsizes[x][0])+"x"+str(customsizes[x][1])+" with "+str(customsizes[x][2])+" mines", command=lambda customsizes=customsizes: setSize(customsizes[x][0], customsizes[x][1], customsizes[x][2]))
    menubar.add_cascade(label="size", menu=menusize)
    menubar.add_command(label="exit", command=lambda: window.destroy())
    window.config(menu=menubar)


def setCustomSize():
    global customsizes
    r = tkinter.simpledialog.askinteger("Custom size", "Enter amount of rows")
    c = tkinter.simpledialog.askinteger("Custom size", "Enter amount of columns")
    m = tkinter.simpledialog.askinteger("Custom size", "Enter amount of mines")
    while m > r*c:
        m = tkinter.simpledialog.askinteger("Custom size", "Maximum mines for this dimension is: " + str(r*c) + "\nEnter amount of mines")
    customsizes.insert(0, (r,c,m))
    customsizes = customsizes[0:5]
    setSize(r,c,m)
    createMenu()

def setSize(r,c,m):
    global rows, cols, mines
    rows = r
    cols = c
    mines = m
    saveConfig()
    restartGame()

def saveConfig():
    global rows, cols, mines
    #configuration
    config = configparser.SafeConfigParser()
    config.add_section("game")
    config.set("game", "rows", str(rows))
    config.set("game", "cols", str(cols))
    config.set("game", "mines", str(mines))
    config.add_section("sizes")
    config.set("sizes", "amount", str(min(5,len(customsizes))))
    for x in range(0,min(5,len(customsizes))):
        config.set("sizes", "row"+str(x), str(customsizes[x][0]))
        config.set("sizes", "cols"+str(x), str(customsizes[x][1]))
        config.set("sizes", "mines"+str(x), str(customsizes[x][2]))

    with open("config.ini", "w") as file:
        config.write(file)

def loadConfig():
    global rows, cols, mines, customsizes
    config = configparser.SafeConfigParser()
    config.read("config.ini")
    rows = config.getint("game", "rows")
    cols = config.getint("game", "cols")
    mines = config.getint("game", "mines")
    amountofsizes = config.getint("sizes", "amount")
    for x in range(0, amountofsizes):
        customsizes.append((config.getint("sizes", "row"+str(x)), config.getint("sizes", "cols"+str(x)), config.getint("sizes", "mines"+str(x))))

def prepareGame():
    global rows, cols, mines, field
    field = []
    for x in range(0, rows):
        field.append([])
        for y in range(0, cols):
            #add button and init value for game
            field[x].append(0)
    #generate mines
    for _ in range(0, mines):
        x = random.randint(0, rows-1)
        y = random.randint(0, cols-1)
        #prevent spawning mine on top of each other
        while field[x][y] == -1:
            x = random.randint(0, rows-1)
            y = random.randint(0, cols-1)
        field[x][y] = -1
        if x != 0:
            if y != 0:
                if field[x-1][y-1] != -1:
                    field[x-1][y-1] = int(field[x-1][y-1]) + 1
            if field[x-1][y] != -1:
                field[x-1][y] = int(field[x-1][y]) + 1
            if y != cols-1:
                if field[x-1][y+1] != -1:
                    field[x-1][y+1] = int(field[x-1][y+1]) + 1
        if y != 0:
            if field[x][y-1] != -1:
                field[x][y-1] = int(field[x][y-1]) + 1
        if y != cols-1:
            if field[x][y+1] != -1:
                field[x][y+1] = int(field[x][y+1]) + 1
        if x != rows-1:
            if y != 0:
                if field[x+1][y-1] != -1:
                    field[x+1][y-1] = int(field[x+1][y-1]) + 1
            if field[x+1][y] != -1:
                field[x+1][y] = int(field[x+1][y]) + 1
            if y != cols-1:
                if field[x+1][y+1] != -1:
                    field[x+1][y+1] = int(field[x+1][y+1]) + 1

def prepareWindow():
    global rows, cols, buttons
    tkinter.Button(window, text="Restart", command=restartGame).grid(row=0, column=0, columnspan=cols, sticky=tkinter.N+tkinter.W+tkinter.S+tkinter.E)
    buttons = []
    for x in range(0, rows):
        buttons.append([])
        for y in range(0, cols):
            b = tkinter.Button(window, text=" ", width=2, command=lambda x=x,y=y: clickOn(x,y))
            b.bind("<Button-3>", lambda e, x=x, y=y:onRightClick(x, y))
            b.grid(row=x+1, column=y, sticky=tkinter.N+tkinter.W+tkinter.S+tkinter.E)
            buttons[x].append(b)

def restartGame():
    global gameover
    gameover = False
    #destroy all - prevent memory leak
    for x in window.winfo_children():
        if type(x) != tkinter.Menu:
            x.destroy()
    prepareWindow()
    prepareGame()

def clickOn(x,y):
    global field, buttons, colors, gameover, rows, cols
    if gameover:
        return
    buttons[x][y]["text"] = str(field[x][y])
    if field[x][y] == -1:
        buttons[x][y]["text"] = "*"
        buttons[x][y].config(background='red', disabledforeground='black')
        gameover = True
        tkinter.messagebox.showinfo("Game Over", "You have lost.")
        #now show all other mines
        for _x in range(0, rows):
            for _y in range(cols):
                if field[_x][_y] == -1:
                    buttons[_x][_y]["text"] = "*"
    else:
        buttons[x][y].config(disabledforeground=colors[field[x][y]])
    if field[x][y] == 0:
        buttons[x][y]["text"] = " "
        #now repeat for all buttons nearby which are 0... kek
        autoClickOn(x,y)
    buttons[x][y]['state'] = 'disabled'
    buttons[x][y].config(relief=tkinter.SUNKEN)
    checkWin()

def autoClickOn(x,y):
    global field, buttons, colors, rows, cols
    if buttons[x][y]["state"] == "disabled":
        return
    if field[x][y] != 0:
        buttons[x][y]["text"] = str(field[x][y])
    else:
        buttons[x][y]["text"] = " "
    buttons[x][y].config(disabledforeground=colors[field[x][y]])
    buttons[x][y].config(relief=tkinter.SUNKEN)
    buttons[x][y]['state'] = 'disabled'
    if field[x][y] == 0:
        if x != 0 and y != 0:
            autoClickOn(x-1,y-1)
        if x != 0:
            autoClickOn(x-1,y)
        if x != 0 and y != cols-1:
            autoClickOn(x-1,y+1)
        if y != 0:
            autoClickOn(x,y-1)
        if y != cols-1:
            autoClickOn(x,y+1)
        if x != rows-1 and y != 0:
            autoClickOn(x+1,y-1)
        if x != rows-1:
            autoClickOn(x+1,y)
        if x != rows-1 and y != cols-1:
            autoClickOn(x+1,y+1)

def onRightClick(x,y):
    global buttons
    if gameover:
        return
    if buttons[x][y]["text"] == "?":
        buttons[x][y]["text"] = " "
        buttons[x][y]["state"] = "normal"
    elif buttons[x][y]["text"] == " " and buttons[x][y]["state"] == "normal":
        buttons[x][y]["text"] = "?"
        buttons[x][y]["state"] = "disabled"

def checkWin():
    global buttons, field, rows, cols
    win = True
    for x in range(0, rows):
        for y in range(0, cols):
            if field[x][y] != -1 and buttons[x][y]["state"] == "normal":
                win = False
    if win:
        tkinter.messagebox.showinfo("Gave Over", "You have won.")

if os.path.exists("config.ini"):
    loadConfig()
else:
    saveConfig()

createMenu()

prepareWindow()
prepareGame()
window.mainloop()

This minesweeper creates settings.ini in the same location where from script was run.

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5
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A few superficial things:

  • Games like this are perfect for object oriented code. Some obvious classes for a Minesweeper game would include for example Game, Board and Tile.
  • Avoid globals. These helpfully often disappear naturally when using OO.
  • Pass the code through pycodestyle and correct everything it reports. Other Pythonistas will thank you, even though it may feel unfamiliar and even arbitrary some times.
  • Avoid single letter names such as b. Even x and y can be misleading in your specific case - a mathematically inclined person would think of them as offsets from the bottom left, but it looks like in your case it's actually an offset from the top left since they are used as row and column in prepareWindow.
  • Use constants for magic values such as configuration variables and the minimum number of mines (5).
  • Add spacing to your longvariablenames to make them easier to read.
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  • \$\begingroup\$ Just to note: doing point 1 (going OO) should fix point 2 (use of globals) \$\endgroup\$ – pjz Apr 10 '18 at 3:52
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Also, you can use random.sample(num_tiles, num_mines) to avoid repetitive mine spawning.

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  • 3
    \$\begingroup\$ While this point is correct, it's not quite obvious why the current code for spawning mines isn't actually "properly random". This answer would be a lot better if you explained why using random.sample is better than using random.randint twice with checking for duplicates :) \$\endgroup\$ – Vogel612 May 24 at 15:17
  • \$\begingroup\$ thanks for the feedback, but i don't see how it's not properly random there. \$\endgroup\$ – sideshow123 May 24 at 16:44
  • \$\begingroup\$ The key here is realizing that the two calls to radom.randint in succession are not as independent as one would want for a fully random distribution in 2d space. With sufficiently many trials, you'd see the properties of the underlying PRNG, Since python 3.2 the distribution is better, but looking at the relevant documentation suggests that subsequent calls to random.randint are still not perfectly independent enough to replace random.sample. TBQH in practice that property doesn't matter too much for non-cryptographic uses. \$\endgroup\$ – Vogel612 May 24 at 17:43
  • \$\begingroup\$ so it's something like a stream cipher with entropy limited to key length? \$\endgroup\$ – sideshow123 May 25 at 1:17
  • \$\begingroup\$ that's basically how it works, yes \$\endgroup\$ – Vogel612 May 25 at 10:32

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