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I am relatively new to programming, and I wish to use this simple minesweeper game in a portfolio. A few questions:

  1. Currently, game setup gets progressively slower with each reset button call, and the window height slightly increases downward. This is very apparent on medium and hard difficulties. What changes can speed up this code? I want to reuse the same window with each reset if possible.
  2. The code uses a Model-View-Controller approach. Does this make sense for a project using tkinter? Is there a better approach?
  3. Some parts such as the additions variable are repeated, but I cannot find a way to make them instance variables.

Any suggestions/constructive feedback is appreciated.

"""
Minesweeper

Implements a basic minesweeper game using tkinter. 
Uses Model-View-Controller architecture.
"""

import tkinter as tk
import random


class Model(object):
    """Crates a board and adds mines to it"""
    def __init__(self, width, height, num_mines):
        self.width = width
        self.height = height
        self.num_mines = num_mines
        self.create_grid()       
        self.add_mines()

    def create_grid(self):
        """Create a self.width by self.height grid of elements with value 0"""
        self.grid = [[0]*self.width for i in range(self.height)]

    def add_mines(self):
        """Randomly adds the amount of self.num_mines to grid"""
        def get_coords():
            row = random.randint(0, self.height - 1)
            col = random.randint(0, self.width - 1)
            return row, col
        for i in range(self.num_mines):
            row, col = get_coords()
            while self.grid[row][col] == "b":
                row, col = get_coords()
            self.grid[row][col] = "b"
        for i in self.grid:
            print (i)


class View(tk.Frame):
    """Creates a main window and grid of button cells"""
    def __init__(self, master, width, height, num_mines):
        tk.Frame.__init__(self, master)
        self.master = master    
        self.width = width
        self.height = height
        self.num_mines = num_mines
        self.master.title("Minesweeper")
        self.grid()
        self.top_panel = TopPanel(self.master, self.height, 
                                  self.width, self.num_mines)
        self.create_widgets()

    def create_widgets(self):
        """Create cell button widgets"""
        self.buttons = {} 
        for i in range(self.height): 
            for j in range(self.width):
                self.buttons[str(i) + "," + str(j)] = tk.Button(
                        self.master, width=5, bg="grey")                                                          
                self.buttons[str(i) + "," + str(j)].grid(row=i+1, column=j+1)                          

    def disp_loss(self):
        """Display the loss label when loss condition is reached""" 
        self.top_panel.loss_label.grid(row=0, columnspan=5)

    def disp_win(self):
        """Display the win label when win condition is reached""" 
        self.top_panel.win_label.grid(row=0, columnspan=5)

    def hide_labels(self, condition=None):
        """Hides labels based on condition argument"""
        if condition:
            self.top_panel.mines_left.grid_remove()
        else: 
            self.top_panel.loss_label.grid_remove()
            self.top_panel.win_label.grid_remove()


class TopPanel(tk.Frame):
    """Create top panel which houses reset button and win/loss and 
    mines left labels."""
    def __init__(self, master, width, height, num_mines):
        tk.Frame.__init__(self, master)
        self.master = master
        self.height = height
        self.width = width
        self.num_mines = num_mines
        self.grid()
        self.create_widgets()

    def create_widgets(self):
        self.reset_button = tk.Button(self.master, width = 7, text="Reset")
        self.reset_button.grid(row=0, columnspan=int((self.width*7)/2))
#        Create win and loss labels
        self.loss_label = tk.Label(text="You Lose!", bg="red")
        self.win_label = tk.Label(text="You Win!", bg="green")
#        Create number of mines remaining label
        self.mine_count = tk.StringVar()
        self.mine_count.set("Mines remaining: " + str(self.num_mines))
        self.mines_left = tk.Label(textvariable=self.mine_count)
        self.mines_left.grid(row=0, columnspan=5)


class Controller(object):
    """Sets up button bindings and minsweeper game logic.

    The act of revealing cells is delegated to the methods: give_val(), 
    reveal_cell(), reveal_adj(), and reveal_cont(). End conditions are handled
    by the loss() and win() methods.
    """
    def __init__(self, width, height, num_mines):        
        self.width = width
        self.height = height
        self.num_mines = num_mines
        self.model = Model(self.width, self.height, self.num_mines)
        self.root = tk.Tk()
        self.view = View(self.root, self.width, self.height, self.num_mines)        
#        self.color_dict is used to assign colors to cells
        self.color_dict = {
            0: "white", 1:"blue", 2:"green", 
            3:"red", 4:"orange", 5:"purple", 
            6: "grey", 7:"grey", 8: "grey"
            }         
#        Self.count keeps track of cells with value of 0 so that they
#        get revealed with self.reveal_cont call only once
        self.count = []
        self.cells_revealed = []
        self.cells_flagged = []
        self.game_state = None
        self.bindings()
        self.root.mainloop()  

    def bindings(self):
        """Set up reveal cell and flag cell key bindings"""
        for i in range(self.height):
            for j in range(self.width):
#                Right click bind to reveal decision method
                self.view.buttons[str(i) + "," + str(j)].bind(
                        "<Button-1>", 
                        lambda event, index=[i, j]:self.reveal(event, index))
#                Left click bind to flag method
                self.view.buttons[str(i) + "," + str(j)].bind(
                        "<Button-3>", 
                        lambda event, index=[i, j]:self.flag(event, index))
#        Set up reset button
        self.view.top_panel.reset_button.bind("<Button>", self.reset)

    def reset(self, event): 
        """Resets game. Currently, game setup gets slower with each reset call,
        and window height slightly increases"""
        self.view.hide_labels()
        self.count = []
        self.cells_revealed = []    
        self.cells_flagged = [] 
        self.game_state = None
        self.model = Model(self.width, self.height, self.num_mines)
        self.view = View(self.root, self.width, 
                         self.height, self.num_mines)
        self.bindings()

    def reveal(self, event, index):
        """Main decision method determining how to reveal cell"""
        i = index[0]
        j = index[1] 
        val = self.give_val(index)
        if val in [x for x in range(1, 9)]:
            self.reveal_cell(val, index)
            self.count.append(index)
        if (val == "b" and self.game_state != "win" and
                self.view.buttons[str(i) + "," + str(j)]["text"] != "FLAG"):
            self.game_state = "Loss"
            self.loss()
#        Begin the revealing recursive method when cell value is 0
        if val == 0:            
            self.reveal_cont(index)

    def give_val(self, index):
        """Returns the number of adjacent mine. Returns "b" if cell is mine"""
        i = index[0]
        j = index[1]               
        num_mines = 0
        try:
            if self.model.grid[i][j] == "b":
                return "b"
        except IndexError:
            pass                
        def increment():
            try:
                if self.model.grid[pos[0]][pos[1]] == "b":
                    return 1
            except IndexError:
                pass
            return 0       
        additions = [
            [i,j+1], [i+1,j], [i+1,j+1], [i,j-1],
            [i+1,j-1], [i-1,j], [i-1,j+1], [i-1,j-1]
            ]                   
        #Adds 1 to num_mines if cell is adjacent to a mine
        for pos in additions:
            if 0 <= pos[0] <= self.height -1 and 0 <= pos[1] <= self.width - 1:
                num_mines += increment()           
        return num_mines

    def reveal_cell(self, value, index):
        """Reveals cell value and assigns an associated color for that value"""
        i = index[0]
        j = index[1]
        cells_unrev = self.height * self.width - len(self.cells_revealed) - 1
        button_key = str(i) + "," + str(j)
        if self.view.buttons[button_key]["text"] == "FLAG":
            pass
        elif value == "b":
            self.view.buttons[button_key].configure(bg="black")
        else:
#           Checks if cell is in the board limits
            if (0 <= i <= self.height - 1 and 
                    0 <= j <= self.width - 1 and 
                    [button_key] not in self.cells_revealed):
                self.view.buttons[button_key].configure(
                        text=value, bg=self.color_dict[value])                     
                self.count.append(button_key)
                self.cells_revealed.append([button_key])               
#            Removes cell from flagged list when the cell gets revealed
            if button_key in self.cells_flagged:
                self.cells_flagged.remove(button_key)
                self.update_mines()
#            Check for win condition
            if (cells_unrev == self.num_mines and not self.game_state):
                self.win()       

    def reveal_adj(self, index):        
        """Reveals the 8 adjacent cells to the input cell index"""
        org_val = self.give_val(index)
        self.reveal_cell(org_val, index)
        i = index[0]
        j = index[1]
        additions = [
            [i,j+1], [i+1,j], [i+1,j+1], [i,j-1],
            [i+1,j-1], [i-1,j], [i-1,j+1], [i-1,j-1]
            ]        
        for pos in additions:
            if (0 <= pos[0] <= self.height - 1 and 
                    0 <= pos[1] <= self.width - 1):
                new_val = self.give_val(pos)
                self.reveal_cell(new_val, pos) 

    def reveal_cont(self, index):
        """Recursive formula that reveals all adjacent cells only if the 
        selected cell has no adjacent mines. 
        (meaning self.give_val(index) == 0)"""     
        i = index[0]
        j = index[1]
        additions = [
            [i,j+1], [i+1,j], [i+1,j+1], [i,j-1],
            [i+1,j-1], [i-1,j], [i-1,j+1], [i-1,j-1]
            ]
        val = self.give_val(index)
        self.reveal_adj(index)
        if val != 0:
            return None
        else:            
            for pos in additions:
                if (0 <= pos[0] <= self.height - 1 and 
                        0 <= pos[1] <= self.width -1 and 
                        self.give_val(pos) == 0 and pos not in self.count):
                    self.count.append(pos)
                    self.reveal_cont(pos)

    def win(self):
        """Display win"""
        self.view.hide_labels("mine")
        self.view.disp_win()
        self.game_state = "win"

    def loss(self):
        """Display loss. Reveal all cells when a mine is clicked"""
        self.view.hide_labels("mine")
        for i in range(self.height):
            for j in range(self.width):
                val = self.give_val([i, j])
                self.reveal_cell(val, [i, j]) 
        self.view.disp_loss()

    def flag(self, event, index):
        """Allows player to flag cells for possible mines. 
        Does not reveal cell."""
        i = index[0]
        j = index[1]
        button_key = str(i) + "," + str(j)
        button_val = self.view.buttons[button_key]       
        if button_val["bg"] == "grey":
            button_val.configure(bg="yellow", text="FLAG")
            self.cells_flagged.append(button_key)
        elif button_val["text"] == "FLAG":
            button_val.configure(bg="grey", text="")
            self.cells_flagged.remove(button_key)
        self.update_mines()

    def update_mines(self):
        """Update mine counter"""
        mines_left = self.num_mines - len(self.cells_flagged)
        if mines_left >= 0:
            self.view.top_panel.mine_count.set(
                    "Mines remaining: " + str(mines_left))

def main():
    n = input("Pick a difficulty: Easy, Medium, or Hard. ")
    if n[0] == "E" or n[0] == "e":
        return Controller(9, 9, 10)
    elif n[0] == "M" or n[0] == "m":
        return Controller(16, 16, 40)
    elif n[0] == "H" or n[0] == "h":
        return Controller(30, 16, 99)


if __name__ == "__main__":
    main()
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  • \$\begingroup\$ I'm working on it, you can see what I currently have here. \$\endgroup\$ – Solomon Ucko Mar 26 '18 at 2:59
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It's a good idea to use the Model–View–Controller pattern. But the implementation needs some work.

In MVC, the model should contain the complete description of the data being manipulated, together with the operations on that data. In the case of a minesweeper game, the model should consist of the following data:

  1. the size of the playing area;
  2. the locations of the mines;
  3. which squares have been uncovered so far;
  4. the locations of the flags;
  5. the state of the game (win/loss/still playing);

together with the operations:

  1. set or clear a flag;
  2. uncover a square;
  3. start a new game.

The idea is that you should be able to port the program to a different kind of interface by swapping out the view and controller, and leaving the model unchanged. But in the implementation in the post, most of the data, and all the operations, have gone into the controller instead. This makes it inconvenient to swap out the controller as all of this would have to be reimplemented in the new controller.

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The game looks great! The code looks pretty good as well!

I definitely agree with Gareth Rees about actually separating the parts of the MVC.

What I changed

  1. I added type hints to all the functions.
  2. I fixed a few typos, as well as adding periods to the ends of the comments.
  3. I changed most of the initializer function calls to be functional-ish (changed from assigning within the function to returning the value from the function and doing the assignment within the initializer).
  4. I changed a lot of the for loops to iterator 'math'.
  5. I extracted out the list of adjacent cells to its own function, as it was repeated a lot.
  6. I changed some of the data types from lists (or strings) to sets or tuples.
  7. I replaced tuple indexing with tuple unpacking.
  8. I attempted to reduce the repetition within the main function.
  9. Maybe a few other smaller things as well.

What still needs to be done

  1. Separation of the MVC components.
  2. It would be nice if the prompt for the difficulty was GUI-based and it was displayed after each reset.

The code

"""
Minesweeper

Implements a basic minesweeper game using tkinter.
Uses Model-View-Controller architecture.
"""

from functools import reduce
from itertools import product
from operator import add
from random import sample
from tkinter import Button, Frame, Label, StringVar, Tk
from typing import Set, Tuple


class Model(object):
    """Creates a board and adds mines to it."""

    def __init__(self, width: int, height: int, num_mines: int):
        self.width = width
        self.height = height
        self.num_mines = num_mines
        self.grid = self.create_grid()
        self.add_mines()

    def create_grid(self):
        """Create a self.width by self.height grid of elements with value 0."""

        return [[0] * self.width for _ in range(self.height)]

    def add_mines(self):
        """Randomly adds the amount of self.num_mines to grid."""

        for x, y in sample(list(product(range(self.width), range(self.height))), self.num_mines):
            self.grid[x][y] = 'm'


class View(Frame):
    """Creates a main window and grid of button cells."""

    def __init__(self, master: Tk, width: int, height: int, num_mines: int):
        Frame.__init__(self, master)
        self.master = master
        self.width = width
        self.height = height
        self.num_mines = num_mines
        self.master.title('Minesweeper')
        self.grid()
        self.top_panel = TopPanel(self.master, self.height, self.width, self.num_mines)
        self.buttons = self.create_buttons()

    def create_buttons(self):
        """Create cell button widgets."""

        def create_button(x, y):
            button = Button(self.master, width=5, bg='grey')
            button.grid(row=x + 1, column=y + 1)
            return button

        return [[create_button(x, y) for y in range(self.height)] for x in range(self.width)]

    def display_lose(self):
        """Display the lose label when lose condition is reached."""

        self.top_panel.loss_label.grid(row=0, columnspan=5)

    def display_win(self):
        """Display the win label when win condition is reached."""

        self.top_panel.win_label.grid(row=0, columnspan=5)

    def hide_labels(self, condition=None):
        """Hides labels based on condition argument."""

        if condition:
            self.top_panel.mines_left.grid_remove()
        else:
            self.top_panel.loss_label.grid_remove()
            self.top_panel.win_label.grid_remove()


class TopPanel(Frame):
    """Create top panel which houses reset button and win/lose and mines left labels."""

    def __init__(self, master: Tk, width: int, height: int, num_mines: int):
        Frame.__init__(self, master)
        self.master = master
        self.num_mines = num_mines
        self.grid()

        self.reset_button = Button(self.master, width=7, text='Reset')
        self.reset_button.grid(row=0, columnspan=int((width * 7) / 2))

        self.loss_label = Label(text='You Lose!', bg='red')
        self.win_label = Label(text='You Win!', bg='green')

        self.mine_count = StringVar()
        self.mine_count.set('Mines remaining: ' + str(self.num_mines))
        self.mines_left = Label(textvariable=self.mine_count)
        self.mines_left.grid(row=0, columnspan=5)


def get_adjacent(index: Tuple[int, int]) -> Set[Tuple[int, int]]:
    x, y = index

    return {
        (x - 1, y - 1), (x, y - 1), (x + 1, y - 1),
        (x - 1, y), (x + 1, y),
        (x - 1, y + 1), (x, y + 1), (x + 1, y + 1),
    }


class Controller(object):
    """Sets up button bindings and minesweeper game logic.

    The act of revealing cells is delegated to the methods: adjacent_mine_count(), reveal_cell(), reveal_adjacent(), and reveal_cont(). End conditions are handled by the lose() and win() methods.
    """

    def __init__(self, width: int, height: int, num_mines: int):
        self.width = width
        self.height = height
        self.num_mines = num_mines
        self.model = Model(self.width, self.height, self.num_mines)
        self.root = Tk()
        self.view = View(self.root, self.width, self.height, self.num_mines)
        # self.color_dict is used to assign colors to cells
        self.color_dict = {
            0: 'white', 1: 'blue', 2: 'green',
            3: 'red', 4: 'orange', 5: 'purple',
            6: 'grey', 7: 'grey', 8: 'grey'
        }
        # self.count keeps track of cells with value of 0 so that they get revealed with self.reveal_cont call only once.
        self.count = set()
        self.cells_revealed = set()
        self.cells_flagged = set()
        self.game_state = None
        self.initialize_bindings()
        self.root.mainloop()

    def initialize_bindings(self):
        """Set up reveal cell and flag cell key bindings."""

        for x in range(self.height):
            for y in range(self.width):
                def closure_helper(f, index):
                    def g(_): f(index)

                    return g

                # Right click bind to reveal decision method
                self.view.buttons[x][y].bind('<Button-1>', closure_helper(self.reveal, (x, y)))

                # Left click bind to flag method
                self.view.buttons[x][y].bind('<Button-3>', closure_helper(self.flag, (x, y)))

        # Set up reset button
        self.view.top_panel.reset_button.bind('<Button>', lambda event: self.reset())

    def reset(self):
        """Resets game. Currently, game setup gets slower with each reset call, and window height slightly increases."""

        self.view.hide_labels()
        self.count = set()
        self.cells_revealed = set()
        self.cells_flagged = set()
        self.game_state = None
        self.model = Model(self.width, self.height, self.num_mines)
        self.view = View(self.root, self.width, self.height, self.num_mines)
        self.initialize_bindings()

    def reveal(self, index: Tuple[int, int]):
        """Main decision method determining how to reveal cell."""

        x, y = index
        val = self.adjacent_mine_count(index)

        if val in range(1, 9):
            self.reveal_cell(index)
            self.count.add(index)

        if self.model.grid[x][y] == 'm' and self.game_state != 'win' and self.view.buttons[x][y]['text'] != 'FLAG':
            self.game_state = 'Loss'
            self.lose()

        # Begin the revealing recursive method when cell value is 0
        if val == 0:
            self.reveal_cont(index)

    def adjacent_mine_count(self, index: Tuple[int, int]) -> int:
        """Returns the number of adjacent mines."""

        def is_mine(pos):
            try:
                return self.model.grid[pos[0]][pos[1]] == 'm'
            except IndexError:
                return False

        return reduce(add, map(is_mine, get_adjacent(index)))

    def reveal_cell(self, index: Tuple[int, int]):
        """Reveals cell value and assigns an associated color for that value."""

        x, y = index

        cells_unrevealed = self.height * self.width - len(self.cells_revealed) - 1

        if self.view.buttons[x][y]['text'] == 'FLAG':
            pass
        elif self.model.grid[x][y] == 'm':
            self.view.buttons[x][y].configure(bg='black')
        else:
            # Checks if cell is in the board limits
            if 0 <= x <= self.height - 1 and 0 <= y <= self.width - 1 and index not in self.cells_revealed:
                value = self.adjacent_mine_count(index)

                self.view.buttons[x][y].configure(text=value, bg=self.color_dict[value])
                self.count.add(index)
                self.cells_revealed.add(index)

            # Removes cell from flagged list when the cell gets revealed
            if index in self.cells_flagged:
                self.cells_flagged.remove(index)
                self.update_mines()

            # Check for win condition
            if cells_unrevealed == self.num_mines and not self.game_state:
                self.win()

    def reveal_adjacent(self, index: Tuple[int, int]):
        """Reveals the 8 adjacent cells to the input cell index."""

        for pos in get_adjacent(index) | {index}:
            if 0 <= pos[0] <= self.height - 1 and 0 <= pos[1] <= self.width - 1:
                self.reveal_cell(pos)

    def reveal_cont(self, index: Tuple[int, int]):
        """Recursive formula that reveals all adjacent cells only if the selected cell has no adjacent mines. (meaning self.adjacent_mine_count(index) == 0)."""

        val = self.adjacent_mine_count(index)

        if val == 0:
            self.reveal_adjacent(index)

            for pos in get_adjacent(index):
                if (
                        0 <= pos[0] <= self.height - 1
                        and 0 <= pos[1] <= self.width - 1
                        and self.adjacent_mine_count(pos) == 0
                        and pos not in self.count
                ):
                    self.count.add(pos)
                    self.reveal_cont(pos)

    def win(self):
        """Display win."""

        self.view.hide_labels('mine')
        self.view.display_win()
        self.game_state = 'win'

    def lose(self):
        """Display lose. Reveal all cells when a mine is clicked."""

        self.view.hide_labels('mine')

        for x in range(self.height):
            for y in range(self.width):
                self.reveal_cell((x, y))

        self.view.display_lose()

    def flag(self, index: Tuple[int, int]):
        """Allows player to flag cells for possible mines. Does not reveal cell."""

        x, y = index

        button_val = self.view.buttons[x][y]

        if button_val['bg'] == 'grey':
            button_val.configure(bg='yellow', text='FLAG')
            self.cells_flagged.add(index)
        elif button_val['text'] == 'FLAG':
            button_val.configure(bg='grey', text='')
            self.cells_flagged.remove(index)

        self.update_mines()

    def update_mines(self):
        """Update mine counter."""

        mines_left = self.num_mines - len(self.cells_flagged)

        if mines_left >= 0:
            self.view.top_panel.mine_count.set(f'Mines remaining: {mines_left}')


def main():
    n = input('Pick a difficulty: Easy, Medium, or Hard: ')

    return Controller(*{
        'e': (9, 9, 10),
        'm': (16, 16, 40),
        'h': (30, 16, 99)
    }[n.lower()])


if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()

Please let me know if I missed anything important and if anything needs clarification.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ Thank you Solomon for the suggestions and edits! Any thoughts on improving the reset call speed? I will restructure the code using your and Gareth Rees' ideas. \$\endgroup\$ – EndreoT Mar 28 '18 at 18:16
  • \$\begingroup\$ Not really sure. It might fix itself once you restructure his changes. \$\endgroup\$ – Solomon Ucko Mar 28 '18 at 19:14
  • \$\begingroup\$ Sorry for hijacking this. Either way: I was about to retract my concerns on metamemelords question, as long as it was going to be edited (and its title changed), but it got deleted by them :/. \$\endgroup\$ – Zeta Mar 30 '18 at 14:14
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Zeta, that's fair. I wonder why they deleted it in the middle of a discussion, but oh well. \$\endgroup\$ – Solomon Ucko Mar 30 '18 at 14:18
0
\$\begingroup\$

Here is the revised minesweeper game with a controller that can use different interfaces. It now includes a text interface for the masochists. Also, resetting the game now destroys the root window and creates a new one. Credit for suggestions and edits are given to @Gareth and @Solomon. Anyone with tkinter experience have an answer on how to reuse the same tk window during game reset so that the previously posted problems do not happen?

"""
Minesweeper

Implements a basic minesweeper game using the tkinter module.
Uses a Model-View-Controller structure.
"""

from functools import reduce
from itertools import product
from operator import add
from random import sample
from tkinter import Button, Frame, Label, StringVar, Tk
from typing import Set, Tuple


def get_adjacent(index: Tuple[int, int]) -> Set[Tuple[int, int]]:
    """Returns adjacent coordinates for input index"""

    x, y = index

    return {
        (x - 1, y - 1), (x, y - 1), (x + 1, y - 1),
        (x - 1, y),                 (x + 1, y),
        (x - 1, y + 1), (x, y + 1), (x + 1, y + 1),
        }


class Model(object):
    """Creates a board and adds mines to it."""

    def __init__(self, width: int, height: int, num_mines: int):
        self.width = width
        self.height = height
        self.num_mines = num_mines        
        self.grid = self.create_grid()
        self.add_mines()        
        self.grid_coords = self.grid_coords()
        self.adjacent_mine_count()
        self.cells_revealed = set()     
        self.cells_flagged = set()
        self.revealed_zeroes = set()
        self.game_state = None

    def create_grid(self) -> list:
        """Returns a (width by height) grid of elements with value of 0."""

        return [[0] * self.width for _ in range(self.height)]

    def add_mines(self):
        """Randomly adds mines to board grid."""

        for x, y in sample(list(product(range(self.width), range(self.height))), self.num_mines):
            self.grid[y][x] = 'm'

    def grid_coords(self) -> list:
        """Returns a list of (x, y) coordinates for every position on grid."""

        return [(x, y) for y in range(self.height) for x in range(self.width)]

    def adjacent_mine_count(self):
        """Sets cell values to the number of their adjacent mines."""

        def is_mine(coords):
            try:
                if coords[0] >= 0 and coords[1] >= 0:
                    return self.grid[coords[1]][coords[0]] == 'm'
                else:
                    return False
            except IndexError:
                return False

        for position in self.grid_coords: 
            x, y = position
            if self.grid[y][x] != "m":
                grid_value = reduce(add, map(is_mine, get_adjacent(position)))
                self.grid[y][x] = grid_value

    def get_cell_value(self, index: Tuple[int, int]) -> int or str:
        """Returns model's cell value at the given index."""

        x, y = index
        return self.grid[y][x]

class View(Frame):
    """Creates a GUI with a grid of cell buttons."""

    def __init__(self, width: int, height: int, 
                 num_mines: int, difficulty: str, controller: "Controller"):
        self.master = Tk()
        self.width = width
        self.height = height
        self.num_mines = num_mines
        self.difficulty = difficulty
        self.controller = controller
        self.color_dict = {
            0: 'white', 1: 'blue', 2: 'green',
            3: 'red', 4: 'orange', 5: 'purple',
            6: 'grey', 7: 'grey', 8: 'grey', "m": "black"
            }
        self.master.title('Minesweeper')

    def create_buttons(self) -> list:
        """Create cell button widgets."""

        def create_button(x, y):
            button = Button(self.master, width=5, bg='grey')
            button.grid(row=y + 5, column=x + 1)
            return button

        return [[create_button(x, y) for x in range(self.width)] 
                                     for y in range(self.height)]

    def initialize_bindings(self):
        """Set up the reveal cell and the flag cell key bindings."""

        for x in range(self.width):
            for y in range(self.height):
                def closure_helper(f, index):
                    def g(_): 
                        f(index)                    
                    return g

                # Bind reveal decision method to left click
                self.buttons[y][x].bind(
                        '<Button-1>', closure_helper(
                        self.controller.reveal_decision, (x, y)))

                # Bind flag method to right click
                self.buttons[y][x].bind(
                        '<Button-3>', closure_helper(
                        self.controller.update_flagged_cell, (x, y)))

        # Set up reset button
        self.top_panel.reset_button.bind(
                '<Button>', lambda event: self.controller.reset(event))

    def reset_view(self):
        """Destroys the GUI. Controller will create a new GUI"""

        self.master.destroy()

    def reveal_cell(self, index: Tuple[int, int], value: int or str):
        """Reveals cell's value on GUI."""

        x, y = index
        self.buttons[y][x].configure(text=value, bg=self.color_dict[value])

    def flag_cell(self, index: Tuple[int, int]):
        """Flag cell in GUI"""

        x, y = index
        self.buttons[y][x].configure(text="FLAG", bg="yellow")

    def unflag_cell(self, index: Tuple[int, int]):
        """Unflag cell in GUI"""
        x, y = index
        self.buttons[y][x].configure(text="", bg="grey")

    def update_mines_left(self, mines: int):
        """Updates mine counter widget"""

        self.top_panel.mine_count.set("Mines remaining: " + str(mines))

    def display_loss(self):
        """Display the loss label when lose condition is reached."""

        self.top_panel.loss_label.grid(row=0, columnspan=10)

    def display_win(self):
        """Display the win label when win condition is reached."""

        self.top_panel.win_label.grid(row=0, columnspan=10)

    def mainloop(self):
        self.top_panel = TopPanel(self.master, self.height, 
                                  self.width, self.num_mines)
        self.buttons = self.create_buttons()
        self.top_panel.mines_left.grid(row=0, columnspan=5)
        self.initialize_bindings()
        self.master.mainloop()


class TopPanel(Frame):
    """Creates a top panel which contains game information."""

    def __init__(self, master: Tk, width: int, height: int, num_mines: int):
        Frame.__init__(self, master)
        self.master = master
        self.num_mines = num_mines
        self.grid()

        self.reset_button = Button(self.master, width=7, text='Reset')
        self.reset_button.grid(row=0)

        self.loss_label = Label(text='You Lose!', bg='red')
        self.win_label = Label(text='You Win!', bg='green')

        self.mine_count = StringVar()
        self.mine_count.set('Mines remaining: ' + str(self.num_mines))
        self.mines_left = Label(textvariable=self.mine_count)


class TextView(object):
    """Creates a text interface of the minesweeper game."""

    def __init__(self, width: int, height: int, 
                 num_mines: int, difficulty: str, controller: "Controller"):
        self.width = width
        self.height = height
        self.num_mines = num_mines
        self.controller = controller
        self.reveal_dict = {
            0: ' 0  ', 1: ' 1  ', 2: ' 2  ',
            3: ' 3  ', 4: ' 4  ', 5: ' 5  ',
            6: ' 6  ', 7: ' 7  ', 8: ' 8  ', "m": "mine"
            }
        self.cell_view = self.cell_view()
        self.show_grid()

    def cell_view(self)-> list:
        """Create text view of cells."""

        return [["cell" for x in range(self.width)] 
                         for y in range(self.height)]

    def show_grid(self):
        """Prints text grid to console. Includes column numbers."""

        top_row = [str(i) for i in range(self.width)]
        print(" ", *top_row, sep=" "*5)
        for row in range(len(self.cell_view)):
            print(str(row) + ":", *self.cell_view[row], sep="  ")

    def reveal_cell(self, index: Tuple[int, int], value: int or str):
        """Reveals a cell's value in the text view"""

        x, y = index
        self.cell_view[y][x] = self.reveal_dict[value]      

    def flag_cell(self, index: Tuple[int, int]):
        """Flags cell in cell_view"""

        x, y = index
        self.cell_view[y][x] = "FLAG"

    def unflag_cell(self, index: Tuple[int, int]):
        """Unflags cell in cell_view"""

        x, y = index
        self.cell_view[y][x] = "cell"

    def update_mines_left(self, mines):
        """Updates mine counter."""

        print("Mines remaining: " + str(mines))

    def display_loss(self):
        """Displays the lose label when loss condition is reached."""

        print("You Lose!")

    def display_win(self):
        """Displays the win label when win condition is reached."""

        print("You Win!")

    def mainloop(self):
        while True:
            try:
                cmd, *coords = input(
                        "Choose a cell in the format: "
                        + "flag/reveal x y. Type END to quit.  ").split()
                if cmd.lower()[0] == "e":
                    break
                x, y = coords[0], coords[1]
                if cmd.lower()[0] == "f":
                    self.controller.update_flagged_cell((int(x), int(y)))
                elif cmd.lower()[0] == "r":
                    self.controller.reveal_decision((int(x), int(y)))
                else:
                    print("Unknown command")
                self.show_grid()
            except:
                print("Incorrect selection or format")


class Controller(object):
    """Sets up button bindings and minesweeper game logic.

    Reveal_decision determines how to reveal cells. 
    End conditions are handled by the loss and win methods.
    """

    def __init__(self, width: int, height: int, 
                 num_mines: int, difficulty: str, view_type: str):
        self.width = width
        self.height = height
        self.num_mines = num_mines
        self.difficulty = difficulty       
        self.model = Model(self.width, self.height, self.num_mines)
        if view_type == "GUI":
            self.view = View(self.width, self.height, 
                             self.num_mines, self.difficulty, self)
        elif view_type == "TEXT":
            self.view = TextView(self.width, self.height, 
                                 self.num_mines, self.difficulty, self)
        self.view.mainloop()

    def reset(self, event):
        """Resets the game"""

        self.view.reset_view()        
        self.model = Model(self.width, self.height, self.num_mines)
        self.view = View(self.width, self.height, 
                         self.num_mines, self.difficulty, self)
        self.view.mainloop()

    def reveal_decision(self, index: Tuple[int, int]):
        """Main decision method determining how to reveal cell."""

        x, y = index

        cell_value = self.model.get_cell_value(index)
        if index in self.model.cells_flagged:
            return None

        if cell_value in range(1, 9):
            self.reveal_cell(index, cell_value)

        elif (
                self.model.grid[y][x] == "m" 
                and self.model.game_state != "win"
                ):
            self.loss()

        else:
            self.reveal_zeroes(index)

#        Check for win condition
        cells_unrevealed = self.height * self.width - len(self.model.cells_revealed) 
        if cells_unrevealed == self.num_mines and self.model.game_state != "loss":
            self.win()

    def reveal_cell(self, index: Tuple[int, int], value: int or str):
        """Obtains cell value from model and passes the value to view."""

        if index in self.model.cells_flagged:
            return None
        else:
            self.model.cells_revealed.add(index)
            self.view.reveal_cell(index, value)

    def reveal_adjacent(self, index: Tuple[int, int]):
        """Reveals the 8 adjacent cells to the input cell's index."""

        for coords in get_adjacent(index):
            if (
                    0 <= coords[0] <= self.width - 1 
                    and 0 <= coords[1] <= self.height - 1
                    ):
                cell_value = self.model.get_cell_value(coords)
                self.reveal_cell(coords, cell_value)

    def reveal_zeroes(self, index: Tuple[int, int]):
        """Reveals all adjacent cells just until a mine is reached."""

        val = self.model.get_cell_value(index)

        if val == 0:
            self.reveal_cell(index, val)
            self.reveal_adjacent(index)

            for coords in get_adjacent(index):
                if (
                        0 <= coords[0] <= self.width - 1
                        and 0 <= coords[1] <= self.height - 1
                        and self.model.get_cell_value(coords) == 0
                        and coords not in self.model.revealed_zeroes
                        ):
                    self.model.revealed_zeroes.add(coords)
                    self.reveal_zeroes(coords)

    def update_flagged_cell(self, index: Tuple[int, int]):
        """Flag/unflag cells for possible mines. Does not reveal cell."""

        if (
                index not in self.model.cells_revealed 
                and index not in self.model.cells_flagged
                ):
            self.model.cells_flagged.add(index)
            self.view.flag_cell(index)

        elif (
                index not in self.model.cells_revealed 
                and index in self.model.cells_flagged
                ):
            self.model.cells_flagged.remove(index)
            self.view.unflag_cell(index)

        self.update_mines()

    def update_mines(self):
        """Update mine counter."""

        mines_left = self.num_mines - len(self.model.cells_flagged)

        if mines_left >= 0:
            self.view.update_mines_left(mines_left)

    def win(self):
        """Sweet sweet victory."""

        self.model.game_state = "win"
        self.view.display_win()

    def loss(self):
        """Show loss, and reveal all cells."""

        self.model.game_state = "loss"
        self.view.display_loss()

#        Reveals all cells
        for row in range(self.height):
            for col in range(self.width):
                cell_value = self.model.get_cell_value((col,row))
                self.view.reveal_cell((col, row), cell_value)


class InitializeGame(Frame):
    """Sets up minesweepergame. Allows player to choose difficulty"""

    def __init__(self):
        self.root = Tk()        
        self.create_view_choice()
        self.create_difficulty_widgets()
        self.root.mainloop()

    def create_view_choice(self):
        "Creates widgets allowing player to choose a view type."""

        self.view_label = Label(self.root, text="Choose a view type")
        self.view_label.grid()
        self.view_types = ["GUI", "TEXT"]
        def create_button(view_type):
            button = Button(self.root, width=7, bg='grey', text=view_type)
            button.grid()
            return button

        self.view_widgets = [
                create_button(view_type) for view_type in self.view_types
                ] + [self.view_label]

        for i in range(2):
            def closure_helper(f, view_choice):
                    def g(_): 
                        f(view_choice)                    
                    return g
            self.view_widgets[i].bind("<Button>", closure_helper(
                    self.set_up_difficulty_widgets, self.view_types[i]))

    def create_difficulty_widgets(self):
        """Set up widgets at start of game for difficulty."""

        self.diff_label = Label(self.root, text="Choose a difficulty")
        self.difficulty = ("Easy", "Medium", "Hard")
        def create_button(difficulty):
            button = Button(self.root, width=7, bg='grey', text=difficulty)
            return button

        self.difficulty_widgets = [create_button(diff) 
                                    for diff in self.difficulty]
        self.difficulty_widgets = [self.diff_label] + self.difficulty_widgets

    def set_up_difficulty_widgets(self, view_type: str):
        """Removes view widgets. Sets up difficulty options for view chosen."""

        for widget in self.view_widgets:
            widget.grid_remove()

        if view_type == "TEXT":
            self.difficulty_widgets[0].grid()
            self.difficulty_widgets[1].grid()
        else:
            for widget in self.difficulty_widgets:
                widget.grid()
        self.bind_difficulty_widgets(view_type)

    def bind_difficulty_widgets(self, view_type: str):
        """Binds difficulty buttons."""

        for i in range(1, 4):
            def closure_helper(f, difficulty, view_type):
                    def g(_): 
                        f(difficulty, view_type)                    
                    return g
            self.difficulty_widgets[i].bind(
                    "<Button>", closure_helper(
                    self.init_game, self.difficulty[i - 1], view_type))

    def init_game(self, difficulty: str, view_type: str):
        """Begins game."""

        self.root.destroy()
        return Controller(*{
                            'E': (10, 10, 10, difficulty, view_type),
                            'M': (16, 16, 40, difficulty, view_type),
                            'H': (25, 20, 99, difficulty, view_type)
                            }[difficulty[0]])


if __name__ == "__main__":
    game = InitializeGame() 
\$\endgroup\$

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