4
\$\begingroup\$

I'm working on a project where I have to extract some basic information from webpages like links, title etc. I can't use any of the awesome libs like bs4 or my personal favorite lxml.

At first I tried xml.minidon.parseString() but it had zero tolerance for broken html. My app needs to parse html from random sources so I have no control over the quality of the HTML that gets passed to the parser.

It was suggested to me by a fellow coder to use html.parse.HTMLParser(). My first impression of HTMLParser was that this is low level but pretty cool.

I wouldn't want to do any advanced scraping with it but it's great at extracting basic information from a web page like the title and links. It also seems to be pretty fast. So I figured HTMLParser() was the best choice for the job.

I quickly hacked this parser together and was able to make it do most of what I need it to do.

Before I begin expanding this parser I would like to do as much refactoring as possible.

#-*-coding:utf8;-*-
#qpy:3
#qpy:console

from html.parser import HTMLParser
from urllib.request import urlopen
from urllib.parse import urlparse

ANCHOR = 'a'
TITLE = 'title'
META = 'meta'
BOLD = 'b'



class BasicParser(HTMLParser):

    recording_title = 0
    recording_bold = 0
    links = set()
    bold_text = []
    title = None
    url = None
    root_url = None
    resolve_links = 1

    def set_url(self, url):
        parsed_url = urlparse(url)
        scheme = parsed_url.scheme
        host = parsed_url.netloc
        self.root_url = '{}://{}/'.format(scheme, host)
        self.url = parsed_url.geturl()


    def handle_starttag(self, tag, attrs):
        # TODO; flatten this out!
        if tag == ANCHOR:

            for attribute in attrs:
                if attribute[0] == 'href':
                    link = attribute[1]

                    if not self.resolve_links:
                        self.links.append(link)
                    else:
                        if link.startswith('http'):
                            self.links.add(attribute[1])
                        else:
                            self.links.add(self.root_url + attribute[1])


        if tag == TITLE:
            self.recording_title = 1

        else:
            self.recording_title = 0

        if tag == BOLD:
            self.recording_bold = 1

        else:
            self.recording_bold = 0


    def handle_data(self, data):
        if self.recording_title:
            self.title = data.strip()

        if self.recording_bold:
            self.bold_text.append(data)

# example usage.
url = 'http://www.cnn.com/'

def parse_page(url):
    p = BasicParser()
    p.set_url(url)
    html = urlopen(url).read().decode('latin-1')
    p.feed(html)
    return p

page = parse_page(url)

print(page.title)

Here is the source code to HTMLParser:

"""A parser for HTML and XHTML."""

# This file is based on sgmllib.py, but the API is slightly different.

# XXX There should be a way to distinguish between PCDATA (parsed
# character data -- the normal case), RCDATA (replaceable character
# data -- only char and entity references and end tags are special)
# and CDATA (character data -- only end tags are special).


import re
import warnings
import _markupbase

from html import unescape


__all__ = ['HTMLParser']

# Regular expressions used for parsing

interesting_normal = re.compile('[&<]')
incomplete = re.compile('&[a-zA-Z#]')

entityref = re.compile('&([a-zA-Z][-.a-zA-Z0-9]*)[^a-zA-Z0-9]')
charref = re.compile('&#(?:[0-9]+|[xX][0-9a-fA-F]+)[^0-9a-fA-F]')

starttagopen = re.compile('<[a-zA-Z]')
piclose = re.compile('>')
commentclose = re.compile(r'--\s*>')
# Note:
#  1) if you change tagfind/attrfind remember to update locatestarttagend too;
#  2) if you change tagfind/attrfind and/or locatestarttagend the parser will
#     explode, so don't do it.
# see http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/tokenization.html#tag-open-state
# and http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/tokenization.html#tag-name-state
tagfind_tolerant = re.compile(r'([a-zA-Z][^\t\n\r\f />\x00]*)(?:\s|/(?!>))*')
attrfind_tolerant = re.compile(
    r'((?<=[\'"\s/])[^\s/>][^\s/=>]*)(\s*=+\s*'
    r'(\'[^\']*\'|"[^"]*"|(?![\'"])[^>\s]*))?(?:\s|/(?!>))*')
locatestarttagend_tolerant = re.compile(r"""
  <[a-zA-Z][^\t\n\r\f />\x00]*       # tag name
  (?:[\s/]*                          # optional whitespace before attribute name
    (?:(?<=['"\s/])[^\s/>][^\s/=>]*  # attribute name
      (?:\s*=+\s*                    # value indicator
        (?:'[^']*'                   # LITA-enclosed value
          |"[^"]*"                   # LIT-enclosed value
          |(?!['"])[^>\s]*           # bare value
         )
         (?:\s*,)*                   # possibly followed by a comma
       )?(?:\s|/(?!>))*
     )*
   )?
  \s*                                # trailing whitespace
""", re.VERBOSE)
endendtag = re.compile('>')
# the HTML 5 spec, section 8.1.2.2, doesn't allow spaces between
# </ and the tag name, so maybe this should be fixed
endtagfind = re.compile(r'</\s*([a-zA-Z][-.a-zA-Z0-9:_]*)\s*>')



class HTMLParser(_markupbase.ParserBase):
    """Find tags and other markup and call handler functions.

    Usage:
        p = HTMLParser()
        p.feed(data)
        ...
        p.close()

    Start tags are handled by calling self.handle_starttag() or
    self.handle_startendtag(); end tags by self.handle_endtag().  The
    data between tags is passed from the parser to the derived class
    by calling self.handle_data() with the data as argument (the data
    may be split up in arbitrary chunks).  If convert_charrefs is
    True the character references are converted automatically to the
    corresponding Unicode character (and self.handle_data() is no
    longer split in chunks), otherwise they are passed by calling
    self.handle_entityref() or self.handle_charref() with the string
    containing respectively the named or numeric reference as the
    argument.
    """

    CDATA_CONTENT_ELEMENTS = ("script", "style")

    iidef __init__(self, *, convert_charrefs=True):
        """Initialize and reset this instance.

        If convert_charrefs is True (the default), all character references
        are automatically converted to the corresponding Unicode characters.
        """
        self.convert_charrefs = convert_charrefs
        self.reset()

    def reset(self):
        """Reset this instance.  Loses all unprocessed data."""
        self.rawdata = ''
        self.lasttag = '???'
        self.interesting = interesting_normal
        self.cdata_elem = None
        _markupbase.ParserBase.reset(self)

    def feed(self, data):
        r"""Feed data to the parser.

        Call this as often as you want, with as little or as much text
        as you want (may include '\n').
        """
        self.rawdata = self.rawdata + data
        self.goahead(0)

    def close(self):
        """Handle any buffered data."""
        self.goahead(1)

    __starttag_text = None

    def get_starttag_text(self):
        """Return full source of start tag: '<...>'."""
        return self.__starttag_text

    def set_cdata_mode(self, elem):
        self.cdata_elem = elem.lower()
        self.interesting = re.compile(r'</\s*%s\s*>' % self.cdata_elem, re.I)

    def clear_cdata_mode(self):
        self.interesting = interesting_normal
        self.cdata_elem = None

    # Internal -- handle data as far as reasonable.  May leave state
    # and data to be processed by a subsequent call.  If 'end' is
    # true, force handling all data as if followed by EOF marker.
    def goahead(self, end):
        rawdata = self.rawdata
        i = 0
        n = len(rawdata)
        while i < n:
            if self.convert_charrefs and not self.cdata_elem:
                j = rawdata.find('<', i)
                if j < 0:
                    # if we can't find the next <, either we are at the end
                    # or there's more text incoming.  If the latter is True,
                    # we can't pass the text to handle_data in case we have
                    # a charref cut in half at end.  Try to determine if
                    # this is the case before proceeding by looking for an
                    # & near the end and see if it's followed by a space or ;.
                    amppos = rawdata.rfind('&', max(i, n-34))
                    if (amppos >= 0 and
                        not re.compile(r'[\s;]').search(rawdata, amppos)):
                        break  # wait till we get all the text
                    j = n
            else:
                match = self.interesting.search(rawdata, i)  # < or &
                if match:
                    j = match.start()
                else:
                    if self.cdata_elem:
                        break
                    j = n
            if i < j:
                if self.convert_charrefs and not self.cdata_elem:
                    self.handle_data(unescape(rawdata[i:j]))
                else:
                    self.handle_data(rawdata[i:j])
            i = self.updatepos(i, j)
            if i == n: break
            startswith = rawdata.startswith
            if startswith('<', i):
                if starttagopen.match(rawdata, i): # < + letter
                    k = self.parse_starttag(i)
                elif startswith("</", i):
                    k = self.parse_endtag(i)
                elif startswith("<!--", i):
                    k = self.parse_comment(i)
                elif startswith("<?", i):
                    k = self.parse_pi(i)
                elif startswith("<!", i):
                    k = self.parse_html_declaration(i)
                elif (i + 1) < n:
                    self.handle_data("<")
                    k = i + 1
                else:
                    break
                if k < 0:
                    if not end:
                        break
                    k = rawdata.find('>', i + 1)
                    if k < 0:
                        k = rawdata.find('<', i + 1)
                        if k < 0:
                            k = i + 1
                    else:
                        k += 1
                    if self.convert_charrefs and not self.cdata_elem:
                        self.handle_data(unescape(rawdata[i:k]))
                    else:
                        self.handle_data(rawdata[i:k])
                i = self.updatepos(i, k)
            elif startswith("&#", i):
                match = charref.match(rawdata, i)
                if match:
                    name = match.group()[2:-1]
                    self.handle_charref(name)
                    k = match.end()
                    if not startswith(';', k-1):
                        k = k - 1
                    i = self.updatepos(i, k)
                    continue
                else:
                    if ";" in rawdata[i:]:  # bail by consuming &#
                        self.handle_data(rawdata[i:i+2])
                        i = self.updatepos(i, i+2)
                    break
            elif startswith('&', i):
                match = entityref.match(rawdata, i)
                if match:
                    name = match.group(1)
                    self.handle_entityref(name)
                    k = match.end()
                    if not startswith(';', k-1):
                        k = k - 1
                    i = self.updatepos(i, k)
                    continue
                match = incomplete.match(rawdata, i)
                if match:
                    # match.group() will contain at least 2 chars
                    if end and match.group() == rawdata[i:]:
                        k = match.end()
                        if k <= i:
                            k = n
                        i = self.updatepos(i, i + 1)
                    # incomplete
                    break
                elif (i + 1) < n:
                    # not the end of the buffer, and can't be confused
                    # with some other construct
                    self.handle_data("&")
                    i = self.updatepos(i, i + 1)
                else:
                    break
            else:
                assert 0, "interesting.search() lied"
        # end while
        if end and i < n and not self.cdata_elem:
            if self.convert_charrefs and not self.cdata_elem:
                self.handle_data(unescape(rawdata[i:n]))
            else:
                self.handle_data(rawdata[i:n])
            i = self.updatepos(i, n)
        self.rawdata = rawdata[i:]

    # Internal -- parse html declarations, return length or -1 if not terminated
    # See w3.org/TR/html5/tokenization.html#markup-declaration-open-state
    # See also parse_declaration in _markupbase
    def parse_html_declaration(self, i):
        rawdata = self.rawdata
        assert rawdata[i:i+2] == '<!', ('unexpected call to '
                                        'parse_html_declaration()')
        if rawdata[i:i+4] == '<!--':
            # this case is actually already handled in goahead()
            return self.parse_comment(i)
        elif rawdata[i:i+3] == '<![':
            return self.parse_marked_section(i)
        elif rawdata[i:i+9].lower() == '<!doctype':
            # find the closing >
            gtpos = rawdata.find('>', i+9)
            if gtpos == -1:
                return -1
            self.handle_decl(rawdata[i+2:gtpos])
            return gtpos+1
        else:
            return self.parse_bogus_comment(i)

    # Internal -- parse bogus comment, return length or -1 if not terminated
    # see http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/tokenization.html#bogus-comment-state
    def parse_bogus_comment(self, i, report=1):
        rawdata = self.rawdata
        assert rawdata[i:i+2] in ('<!', '</'), ('unexpected call to '
                                                'parse_comment()')
        pos = rawdata.find('>', i+2)
        if pos == -1:
            return -1
        if report:
            self.handle_comment(rawdata[i+2:pos])
        return pos + 1

    # Internal -- parse processing instr, return end or -1 if not terminated
    def parse_pi(self, i):
        rawdata = self.rawdata
        assert rawdata[i:i+2] == '<?', 'unexpected call to parse_pi()'
        match = piclose.search(rawdata, i+2) # >
        if not match:
            return -1
        j = match.start()
        self.handle_pi(rawdata[i+2: j])
        j = match.end()
        return j

    # Internal -- handle starttag, return end or -1 if not terminated
    def parse_starttag(self, i):
        self.__starttag_text = None
        endpos = self.check_for_whole_start_tag(i)
        if endpos < 0:
            return endpos
        rawdata = self.rawdata
        self.__starttag_text = rawdata[i:endpos]

        # Now parse the data between i+1 and j into a tag and attrs
        attrs = []
        match = tagfind_tolerant.match(rawdata, i+1)
        assert match, 'unexpected call to parse_starttag()'
        k = match.end()
        self.lasttag = tag = match.group(1).lower()
        while k < endpos:
            m = attrfind_tolerant.match(rawdata, k)
            if not m:
                break
            attrname, rest, attrvalue = m.group(1, 2, 3)
            if not rest:
                attrvalue = None
            elif attrvalue[:1] == '\'' == attrvalue[-1:] or \
                 attrvalue[:1] == '"' == attrvalue[-1:]:
                attrvalue = attrvalue[1:-1]
            if attrvalue:
                attrvalue = unescape(attrvalue)
            attrs.append((attrname.lower(), attrvalue))
            k = m.end()

        end = rawdata[k:endpos].strip()
        if end not in (">", "/>"):
            lineno, offset = self.getpos()
            if "\n" in self.__starttag_text:
                lineno = lineno + self.__starttag_text.count("\n")
                offset = len(self.__starttag_text) \
                         - self.__starttag_text.rfind("\n")
            else:
                offset = offset + len(self.__starttag_text)
            self.handle_data(rawdata[i:endpos])
            return endpos
        if end.endswith('/>'):
            # XHTML-style empty tag: <span attr="value" />
            self.handle_startendtag(tag, attrs)
        else:
            self.handle_starttag(tag, attrs)
            if tag in self.CDATA_CONTENT_ELEMENTS:
                self.set_cdata_mode(tag)
        return endpos

    # Internal -- check to see if we have a complete starttag; return end
    # or -1 if incomplete.
    def check_for_whole_start_tag(self, i):
        rawdata = self.rawdata
        m = locatestarttagend_tolerant.match(rawdata, i)
        if m:
            j = m.end()
            next = rawdata[j:j+1]
            if next == ">":
                return j + 1
            if next == "/":
                if rawdata.startswith("/>", j):
                    return j + 2
                if rawdata.startswith("/", j):
                    # buffer boundary
                    return -1
                # else bogus input
                if j > i:
                    return j
                else:
                    return i + 1
            if next == "":
                # end of input
                return -1
            if next in ("abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz=/"
                        "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ"):
                # end of input in or before attribute value, or we have the
                # '/' from a '/>' ending
                return -1
            if j > i:
                return j
            else:
                return i + 1
        raise AssertionError("we should not get here!")

    # Internal -- parse endtag, return end or -1 if incomplete
    def parse_endtag(self, i):
        rawdata = self.rawdata
        assert rawdata[i:i+2] == "</", "unexpected call to parse_endtag"
        match = endendtag.search(rawdata, i+1) # >
        if not match:
            return -1
        gtpos = match.end()
        match = endtagfind.match(rawdata, i) # </ + tag + >
        if not match:
            if self.cdata_elem is not None:
                self.handle_data(rawdata[i:gtpos])
                return gtpos
            # find the name: w3.org/TR/html5/tokenization.html#tag-name-state
            namematch = tagfind_tolerant.match(rawdata, i+2)
            if not namematch:
                # w3.org/TR/html5/tokenization.html#end-tag-open-state
                if rawdata[i:i+3] == '</>':
                    return i+3
                else:
                    return self.parse_bogus_comment(i)
            tagname = namematch.group(1).lower()
            # consume and ignore other stuff between the name and the >
            # Note: this is not 100% correct, since we might have things like
            # </tag attr=">">, but looking for > after tha name should cover
            # most of the cases and is much simpler
            gtpos = rawdata.find('>', namematch.end())
            self.handle_endtag(tagname)
            return gtpos+1

        elem = match.group(1).lower() # script or style
        if self.cdata_elem is not None:
            if elem != self.cdata_elem:
                self.handle_data(rawdata[i:gtpos])
                return gtpos

        self.handle_endtag(elem.lower())
        self.clear_cdata_mode()
        return gtpos

    # Overridable -- finish processing of start+end tag: <tag.../>
    def handle_startendtag(self, tag, attrs):
        self.handle_starttag(tag, attrs)
        self.handle_endtag(tag)

    # Overridable -- handle start tag
    def handle_starttag(self, tag, attrs):
        pass

    # Overridable -- handle end tag
    def handle_endtag(self, tag):
        pass

    # Overridable -- handle character reference
    def handle_charref(self, name):
        pass

    # Overridable -- handle entity reference
    def handle_entityref(self, name):
        pass

    # Overridable -- handle data
    def handle_data(self, data):
        pass

    # Overridable -- handle comment
    def handle_comment(self, data):
        pass

    # Overridable -- handle declaration
    def handle_decl(self, decl):
        pass

    # Overridable -- handle processing instruction
    def handle_pi(self, data):
        pass

    def unknown_decl(self, data):
        pass

    # Internal -- helper to remove special character quoting
    def unescape(self, s):
        warnings.warn('The unescape method is deprecated and will be removed '
                      'in 3.5, use html.unescape() instead.',
                      DeprecationWarning, stacklevel=2)
        return unescape(s)
\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ Now I'm having the same problem I was having with XML.mimidom. I'm getting errors because of broken html. It seems the standard library doesn't have a method that will parse broken html. I will have to look at the source for `htm \$\endgroup\$ – Ricky Wilson Dec 14 '17 at 7:32
  • \$\begingroup\$ Now I'm having the same problem I was having with xml.mimidom. I'm getting errors because of broken html. It seems the standard library doesn't have a method that will parse broken html. I will have to look at the source for html.parse.HTMLParser and see if I can monkey patch it to ignore errors . Ignore my last comment \$\endgroup\$ – Ricky Wilson Dec 14 '17 at 7:39
  • \$\begingroup\$ I wonder if I could just monkey patch handle_starttag() to ignore errors. \$\endgroup\$ – Ricky Wilson Dec 14 '17 at 7:45
  • \$\begingroup\$ I tried monkey patching handle_startendtag() with a decorator that will cause the decorated method to ignore any errors but that didn't work at all. \$\endgroup\$ – Ricky Wilson Dec 14 '17 at 9:23
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Can you use requests? \$\endgroup\$ – Lukasz Salitra Dec 14 '17 at 12:44
1
\$\begingroup\$

There are some quick wins we can have here:

  • "recording" variables can be defined in this concise manner:

    self.recording_title = tag == TITLE
    self.recording_bold = tag == BOLD
    
  • the anchor processing can be improved by adding some advanced unpacking:

    if tag == ANCHOR:
        for name, value, *_ in attrs:
            if name == 'href':
                if not self.resolve_links:
                    self.links.append(value)
                else:
                    if value.startswith('http'):
                        self.links.add(value)
                    else:
                        self.links.add(self.root_url + value)
    

    Also, are you sure self.links.append(value) is going to work? self.links is defined as a set which does not have an .append() method.

  • I would also use urljoin() to join absolute and relative URLs

  • the initial value for the variables should better be defined as instance variables inside __init__() instead of being defined as class variables: more at Instance variables vs. class variables in Python

| improve this answer | |
\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ Thanks for the insight I have already fixed most of the issues you noticed. I reluctantly defined the initial variables as members to avoid overwriting html.parser.HTMLParser.__init__. \$\endgroup\$ – Ricky Wilson Dec 14 '17 at 15:43
  • \$\begingroup\$ @RickyWilson okay, thanks. You can still have the __init__ implemented, but call the superclass’s __init__ from there. \$\endgroup\$ – alecxe Dec 14 '17 at 15:46
  • \$\begingroup\$ Test comment test \$\endgroup\$ – alecxe Dec 14 '17 at 15:54
  • \$\begingroup\$ Could you give me an example of how to overwrite __init__ by using super @alecxe \$\endgroup\$ – Ricky Wilson Dec 14 '17 at 16:40
  • \$\begingroup\$ @RickyWilson sure, here is a sample: stackoverflow.com/a/3276119/771848. \$\endgroup\$ – alecxe Dec 14 '17 at 16:45

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.