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I implemented work stealing queue inspired by Sean Parent's talk on code::dive 2016. Full implementation is here. I am looking to get feedback on improvements to make code more effective and common best practices.

TaskQueue is thread safe task queue. It has pair of blocking Pop/Push methods and non-blocking ones. Non-blocking methods are used in work stealing queue thread pool. Push returns std::future object. When m_done flag is true tasks cannot be popped from the queue.

TaskQueue.h

#pragma once

#include <deque>
#include <optional>
#include <functional>
#include <condition_variable>
#include <future>

class TaskQueue
{
public:

    using TaskType = std::function<void()>;

    TaskQueue() = default;
    ~TaskQueue() = default;

    TaskQueue(TaskQueue&&) = default;
    TaskQueue& operator=(TaskQueue&&) = default;

    void SetDone(bool done)
    {
        {
            LockType lock{ m_mutex };
            m_done = done;
        }

        if (done)
            m_ready.notify_all();
    }

    auto IsDone() const
    {
        LockType lock{ m_mutex };
        return m_done;
    }

    auto WaitAndPop(TaskType& task)
    {
        LockType lock{ m_mutex };

        while (m_queue.empty() && !m_done)
            m_ready.wait(lock);

        if (!m_queue.empty() && !m_done)
        {
            task = std::move(m_queue.front());
            m_queue.pop_front();
            return true;
        }

        return false;
    }

    template<typename TTask>
    auto Push(TTask&& task) // -> std::future<decltype(task())>
    {
        using TaskReturnType = decltype(task());

        // std::packaged_task<> is move only type.
        // We need to wrap it in a shared_ptr:
        auto packagedTask = std::make_shared<std::packaged_task<TaskReturnType()>>(std::forward<TTask>(task));
        auto future = packagedTask->get_future();

        {
            LockType lock{ m_mutex };
            m_queue.emplace_back([packagedTask] { (*packagedTask)(); });
        }

        m_ready.notify_one();
        return future;
    }

    auto TryPop(TaskType& task)
    {
        LockType lock{ m_mutex, std::try_to_lock };

        if (!lock || m_queue.empty() || m_done)
            return false;

        task = move(m_queue.front());
        m_queue.pop_front();
        return true;
    }

    template<typename TTask>
    auto TryPush(TTask&& task) -> std::optional<std::future<decltype(task())>>
    {
        using TaskReturnType = decltype(task());

        // std::packaged_task<void()> is not movable
        // We need to wrap it in a shared_ptr:
        auto packagedTask = std::make_shared<std::packaged_task<TaskReturnType()>>(std::forward<TTask>(task));
        auto future = packagedTask->get_future();

        {
            LockType lock{ m_mutex, std::try_to_lock };

            if (!lock)
                return {};

            m_queue.emplace_back([packagedTask]() { (*packagedTask)(); });
        }

        m_ready.notify_one();
        return future;
    }

private:

    using LockType = std::unique_lock<std::mutex>;

    std::deque<TaskType> m_queue;
    bool                 m_done{ false };
    mutable std::mutex      m_mutex;
    std::condition_variable m_ready;

    TaskQueue(const TaskQueue&) = delete;
    TaskQueue& operator=(const TaskQueue&) = delete;
};

Work-stealing queue thread pool. Each thread has its own task queue. The main idea of work stealing is to Pop/Push tasks in queue that is not locked by another thread.

WorkStealingQueueThreadPool.h

#pragma once

#include "TaskQueue.h"
#include <algorithm>
#include <thread>

class WorkStealingQueueThreadPool
{
public:

    explicit WorkStealingQueueThreadPool(size_t threadCount = std::max(2u, std::thread::hardware_concurrency()));
    ~WorkStealingQueueThreadPool();

    template<typename TaskT>
    auto ExecuteAsync(TaskT&& task)
    {
        const auto index = m_queueIndex++;
        for (size_t n = 0; n != m_queueCount*m_tryoutCount; ++n)
        {
            auto result = m_queues[(index + n) % m_queueCount].TryPush(std::forward<TaskT>(task));

            if (result.has_value())
                return std::move(*result);
        }
        return m_queues[index % m_queueCount].Push(std::forward<TaskT>(task));
    }

private:

    void Run(size_t queueIndex);

    std::vector<TaskQueue> m_queues;
    size_t       m_queueIndex{ 0 };
    const size_t m_queueCount;
    const size_t m_tryoutCount{ 1 };

    std::vector<std::thread> m_threads;
};

WorkStealingQueueThreadPool::WorkStealingQueueThreadPool(size_t threadCount)
    : m_queues{ threadCount }
    , m_queueCount{ threadCount }
{
    for (size_t index = 0; index != threadCount; ++index)
        m_threads.emplace_back([this, index] { Run(index); });
}

WorkStealingQueueThreadPool::~WorkStealingQueueThreadPool()
{
    for (auto& queue : m_queues)
        queue.SetDone(true);

    for (auto& thread : m_threads)
        thread.join();
}

void WorkStealingQueueThreadPool::Run(size_t queueIndex)
{
    while (!m_queues[queueIndex].IsDone())
    {
        TaskQueue::TaskType task;
        for (size_t n = 0; n != m_queueCount*m_tryoutCount; ++n)
        {
            if (m_queues[(queueIndex + n) % m_queueCount].TryPop(task))
                break;
        }

        if (!task && !m_queues[queueIndex].WaitAndPop(task))
            return;

        task();
    }
}
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  • \$\begingroup\$ Please explain what you mean by work-stealing. Why is it different than a normal thread worker queue? \$\endgroup\$ – Emily L. Jul 16 '17 at 16:24
  • \$\begingroup\$ I understand it as follows. In normal task queue for each thread we have its own queue, therefore thread does pop task from it's own queue. In work stealing task queue each thread can pop tasks from any queue. \$\endgroup\$ – Viktor Jul 16 '17 at 18:37
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ That's odd. Normally you just have one big queue and as soon as a thread finishes it's current work, it grabs a new one from the big queue. What's the advantage to the above? \$\endgroup\$ – Emily L. Jul 17 '17 at 9:05
  • \$\begingroup\$ Performance advantage. One big queue is locked on every pop by any thread in pool. \$\endgroup\$ – Viktor Jul 17 '17 at 9:30
  • \$\begingroup\$ Have you measured? The lock is VERY short and contention should be minimal unless you have lots of threads. IIRC most mutex implementations have an initial spinlock to optimise for short locks before grabbing a full mutex lock. Also you can have lock-free queues. So you wouldn't even need a mutex lock if performance is your game. \$\endgroup\$ – Emily L. Jul 17 '17 at 20:42
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TaskQueue

I'm not particularly fond of the name m_done. I would prefer it semantically inverted and called m_enabled. Also it looks like m_done is never set from inside of the queue and you could use std::atomic<bool> for it and avoid a bunch of locking when you query the queue. It seems you already handle it changing dynamically and mid processing.

This:

while (m_queue.empty() && !m_done)
        m_ready.wait(lock);

is equivalent to:

m_ready.wait(lock, [this](){ return m_done || !m_queue.empty(); });

I see that you're using std::packaged_task which is nice and all but be aware that there are some subtle and annoying bugs with this class and Microsoft Visual Studio compilers. Like for example here: std::packaged_task not breaking promises on destruction? .

In TryPush you are constructing the shared std::packaged_task before you get a lock. If you fail to get the lock you destroy the task. But as the task argument was std::moved into the packaged_task, you must no longer use task from the caller (ExecuteAsync). It is also unnecessary work. I would build the packaged task at the caller and simply take a reference to shared_ptr in TryPush to avoid the unnecessary work and the undefined behaviour you got there. Worst case is you could end up executing a moved from task.

WorkStealingQueueThreadPool

The name is a bit convoluted and too many words. I'd look for something shorter.

The variable m_queueCount is useless. Remove it and simply use m_queues.size().

This isn't necessary:

for (auto& thread : m_threads)
    thread.join();

because std::thread is automatically joined on destruction. My memory has failed me, if the thread isn't joined on destruction std::terminate is called.

Looking at ExecuteAsync here:

template<typename TaskT>
auto ExecuteAsync(TaskT&& task)
{
    const auto index = m_queueIndex++;
    for (size_t n = 0; n != m_queueCount*m_tryoutCount; ++n)
    {
        auto result = m_queues[(index + n) % m_queueCount].TryPush(std::forward<TaskT>(task));

        if (result.has_value())
            return std::move(*result);
    }
    return m_queues[index % m_queueCount].Push(std::forward<TaskT>(task));
}

There are a few problems namely that you std::forward the value of task to TryPush. If the universal reference of task has bound to an r-value reference then std::forward will have the same effect as std::move and thus task is not required to contain a valid task for n!=0 and if it is added to a queue n>0 and subsequently executed you will have undefined behaviour. You must only std::forward a universal reference exactly zero or one times.

Closing remarks

In the current implementation I cannot see how this multi-queue could be more effective than a correctly implemented single queue. But I would love to be proven wrong by benchmarks with source code.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ Thanks for review! I 'll fix bugs soon. Regarding std::thread behavior please have a look at this. Regarding benchmark: you can look here. Multi-queue is almost twice faster for light weight tasks (90 ms against 180 ms). If you have any idea how comprehensive and fully correct bench-marking can be done please let me know. \$\endgroup\$ – Viktor Jul 18 '17 at 9:44
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Viktor Hmm my memory has failed me then. I could have sworn std::thread joined on destruction. As for your benchmark unless you show the source I cannot trust the benchmark as you might just as well have botched the implementation of any of the candidates. \$\endgroup\$ – Emily L. Jul 18 '17 at 10:26
  • \$\begingroup\$ @EmilyL. Many consider this nearly to be a defect in std::thread's design. See github.com/isocpp/CppCoreGuidelines/issues/925 \$\endgroup\$ – Maikel Jul 18 '17 at 10:54
  • \$\begingroup\$ @EmilyL. test code is here. \$\endgroup\$ – Viktor Jul 18 '17 at 11:00
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Viktor I optimised the code for single queue thread pool. Results here, code here. Note that the memory allocation tests are pretty much useless as 1) a smart compiler can remove the calls (clang does this). and 2) It's only a sys call and the memory allocation will be really fast as it so happens that there is a suitably large memory area already available after the last call. Which is why the results are so close to the empty task test, it essentially does nothing. \$\endgroup\$ – Emily L. Jul 20 '17 at 15:41

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