I have a bunch of photos in a folder with various EXIF data, and I'd like to output various parts of it to Excel. I'm learning Python (currently using 2.7) and thought this would be a fun task for me to try out, as it incorporates functions, loops, and two libraries (I'm using PIL and Openpxyl).

The code currently works fine! I'm able to get data for about 650 images in under three seconds.

Mainly, I'm trying to learn how to better structure the project. My main "concerns" are with how I'm calling my functions. For example, right now, I want to get the Latitude, Longitude, and DateTime the photo was taken. But say I add another function (i.e. get_Exposure()), I'd like to see if I can better write the writeToFile() function to handle that. Coming from a VBA background, I'm thinking I could loop a single line like ws1.cell(column=[first variable], row=row, value=[first variable value]) somehow.

Finally, am I "calling" all of these functions properly? The whole declaring of variables before the for root, dirs, ... line seems out of place to me for some reason. (FWIW, I am mainly aquainted with VBA, so my thinking is all coming from how one does things in that...)

from PIL import Image
from PIL.ExifTags import TAGS, GPSTAGS
import os, sys

from openpyxl import Workbook
from openpyxl.compat import range
from openpyxl.utils import get_column_letter

def _get_if_exist(data, key):
    if key in data:
        return data[key]

    return None

def get_exif_data(fn):
    """Returns a dictionary from the exif data of an PIL Image item. Also converts the GPS Tags"""
    image = Image.open(fn)

    exif_data = {}
    info = image._getexif()
    if info:
        for tag, value in info.items():
            decoded = TAGS.get(tag, tag)
            if decoded == "GPSInfo":
                gps_data = {}
                for t in value:
                    sub_decoded = GPSTAGS.get(t, t)
                    gps_data[sub_decoded] = value[t]

                exif_data[decoded] = gps_data
                exif_data[decoded] = value

    return exif_data

def _convert_to_degrees(value):
    """Helper function to convert the GPS coordinates stored in the EXIF to degrees in float format"""
    d0 = value[0][0]
    d1 = value[0][1]
    d = float(d0) / float(d1)

    m0 = value[1][0]
    m1 = value[1][1]
    m = float(m0) / float(m1)

    s0 = value[2][0]
    s1 = value[2][1]
    s = float(s0) / float(s1)

    return d + (m / 60.0) + (s / 3600.0)

def get_time_taken(exif_data):
    timeTaken = None
    if "DateTimeOriginal" in exif_data:
        timeTaken = exif_data["DateTimeOriginal"]
    return timeTaken

def get_lat(exif_data):
    lat = None
    if "GPSInfo" in exif_data:
        gps_info = exif_data["GPSInfo"]
        gps_latitude = _get_if_exist(gps_info, "GPSLatitude")
        gps_latitude_ref = _get_if_exist(gps_info, 'GPSLatitudeRef')
        if gps_latitude and gps_latitude_ref:
            lat = _convert_to_degrees(gps_latitude)
            if gps_latitude_ref != "N":
                lat = 0 - lat
    return lat

def get_lon(exif_data):
    lon = None
    if "GPSInfo" in exif_data:
        gps_info = exif_data["GPSInfo"]
        gps_longitude = _get_if_exist(gps_info,"GPSLongitude")
        gps_longitude_ref = _get_if_exist(gps_info, 'GPSLongitudeRef')
        if gps_longitude and gps_longitude_ref:
            lon = _convert_to_degrees(gps_longitude)
            if gps_longitude_ref != "E":
                lon - 0 - lon
    return lon

def writeToFile(imageName, lat, lon, row, timeTaken, ws1):
    ws1.cell(column=1, row=row, value=imageName)
    ws1.cell(column=2, row=row, value=lat)
    ws1.cell(column=3,row=row, value=lon)
    ws1.cell(column=4, row=row,value=timeTaken)

def saveFile(wb, xlFile):
    wb.save(filename = xlFile)

row = 1
wb = Workbook()
ws1 = wb.active
ws1.title = "GPS Coords"
xlFile = "D:\\myUser\\Pictures\\Digital Pictures\\GPSCoords.xlsx"
for root, dirs, filenames in os.walk("D:\\myUser\\Pictures\\Digital Pictures\\"):
    for imageName in filenames:
        if imageName[-4:] == ".jpg":
            fn = "D:\\myUser\\Pictures\\Digital Pictures\\" + imageName
            exif_data = get_exif_data(fn)
            lat = str(get_lat(exif_data))
            lon = str(get_lon(exif_data))
            timeTaken = str(get_time_taken(exif_data))
            print imageName + ": " + lat + ", " + lon + "; " + timeTaken
            writeToFile(imageName, lat, lon, row, timeTaken, ws1)
            row += 1
saveFile(wb, xlFile)
  • \$\begingroup\$ Side question; why are you learning Python 2.7 and not 3.x? \$\endgroup\$
    – Daniel
    Jun 13 '17 at 5:43
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ @Coal_ - Good question actually. I downloaded both, but just chose 2.7 because PIL works with it and apparently not 3.x...but actually, once I get the above kind of cleared up, I'll just ditch 2.7 and go to 3.x. :/ (I see there's Pillow for 3.x, so I should've just used that. Not that I chose 2.7 because PIL was there, just because the formulas I found for EXIF data all used PIL, so just thought to at least get that part understood, then just switch over after I get a handle of the basics. \$\endgroup\$
    – BruceWayne
    Jun 13 '17 at 5:48
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Got it, fun times :P \$\endgroup\$
    – Daniel
    Jun 13 '17 at 5:49

I would change from python 2 to Python 3. There are so many good changes in Python 3, among which for this problem unicode handling is most important that it's worth it.

for the exif-data, PILLOW should be a simple replacement for PIL

general remarks

def _get_if_exist(data, key)

python dicts have get() method with a default argument. Instead of calling making your own function, you can easily do d.get(key, None)

Seperation of functions

Now you loop over the file, check if it is an image and process it in 1 loop. I suggest using 1 function to find all images, a second function to extract all exif-information, a third function to extract the important information, and then a function to bring it all together

My attempt

find all images

def find_images(image_dir, extensions=None):
    default_extensions = ('jpg', 'jpeg')
    if extensions is None:
        extensions = default_extensions
    elif isinstance(extensions, str):
        extensions = (extensions,)
    for root, dirs, filenames in os.walk(image_dir):
        for filename in filenames:
#             print(filename, filename.split('.', 1))
            if filename.split('.', 1)[-1].lower() in extensions:
                yield os.path.join(root, filename)

takes a starting directory and a collection of extensions. It uses str.split('.') to get the extension, instead of the arbitrary [-4:]

This is a generator, which yields the path to an image every iteration. You could make the output more sophisticated by yield filename, os.path.join(root, filename) or yielding a pathlib.Path instead of a str

Getting all exif data

def process_exif_data(image):
    decoded_exif = {}
    with Image.open(image) as image_file:
        exif_data = image_file._getexif()
        if exif_data is None:
            return None
        for tag, value in exif_data.items():
            decoded = TAGS.get(tag, tag)
            if decoded == "GPSInfo":
                decoded_exif[decoded] = value

    # This could be done with a dict comprehension and a ternary expression too
    return decoded_exif

This is pretty much your solution, only I put the GPSInfo into the dict with all exif-info, instead of nested a level deeper. I also do the processing of the GPS-data here already instead of later on

process the GPS-data

def decode_gps_data(info):
    gps_tags = {GPSTAGS.get(k, k): v for k, v in value.items}

    lat, long = get_coordinates(gps_tags)
    gps_tags['lat'] = lat
    gps_tags['lon'] = lon

    return gps_tags

This should speak for itself.

get the coordinates

def get_coordinates(gps_tags):
coords = {'Latitude': 'N', 'Longitude': 'E'}
for coord, nominal_ref in coords.items():
    c = gps_tags.get("GPS%s" % coord, None)
    c_ref = gps_tags.get("GPS%sRef" % coord, None)

    if c and c_ref:
        yield _convert_to_degrees(c, c_ref, nominal_ref)
        yield None

the code to get the latitude and the longitude is the same. The only difference is the nominal reference ('N' or 'E') and the tag, so I abstracted this.

def _convert_to_degrees(value, ref, nominal_ref=None:
    if nominal_ref is None:
        nominal_ref = ('N', 'E',)
    elif isinstance(nom, str):
        nominal_ref = (nominal_ref, )
    ref = 1 if ref in nominal_ref else -1
    return ref * sum(float(v[0]) / float(v[1]) / 60 ** i for i, v in enumerate(value))

Instead of O - calculated_degrees like you do, I multiply by 1 or -1 depending on the reference. The calculation itself uses tuple unpacking and enumerate to do the actual calculation. Since I don't have images with, I have no data to check it with, but it should do the same as your get_lat and get_lon.

Extract the importand data

def extract_important_data(image_data, important_datalabels=('lat', 'lon', 'DateTimeOriginal')):
    if image_data is None:
        return None
    return {key: image_data.get(key, None) for key in important_datalabels}

This just returns a selection of the dict of all exif_data. You can specify which tags are important to you, so you can easily expand the needed information later

Bringing it together

import PIL
from PIL import Image
from PIL.ExifTags import TAGS, GPSTAGS
import pandas as pd
import os

The imports. I use pandas instead of openpyxl directly, since that allows me a lot more freedom to do smaller data processing afterwards

def extract_info(images, important_datalabels=('lat', 'lon', 'DateTimeOriginal')):
    for image_path in images:
        exif_data = process_exif_data(image_path)
        yield image_path, extract_important_data(exif_data, important_datalabels=important_datalabels)

This just iterates over all images thrown at it, and yields the image and the important data in the exif

If you don't want to include the images without EXIF-info in your final results, you can do it like this

def extract_info(images, important_datalabels=('lat', 'lon', 'DateTimeOriginal')):
    for image_path in images:
        exif_data = process_exif_data(image_path)
        important_data = extract_important_data(exif_data)
        if important_data:
            yield image_path, important_data


def main(image_dir=None, filename=None, important_datalabels=('lat', 'lon', 'DateTimeOriginal')):
    if image_dir is None:

    images = find_images(image_dir)
    info = extract_info(images, important_datalabels=important_datalabels)
    result_df = pd.DataFrame(columns = important_datalabels)
    for image_path, item in info:
        result_df.loc[image_path] = item
    if 'DateTimeOriginal' in important_datalabels:
        date_format = '%Y:%m:%d %H:%M:%S'
        result_df['DateTimeOriginal'] = pd.to_datetime(result_df['DateTimeOriginal'], format=date_format)

    if filename:
    return result_df

This is the method that really ties everything together.

  • It looks for all the images in image_dir, if no extensions are passed on, takes the default extensions in that method
  • extracts the important info from those images
  • makes an empty pandas.DataFrame with the important datalabels as columns
  • starts filling this DataFrame
  • changes the date to a datetime.datetime object
  • if a filename is passed on, writes the DataFrame to this filename


For me this yielded

    lat     lon     DateTimeOriginal
.\data\images\image-13.jpg  NaN     NaN     NaT
.\data\images\piazza-nite-2-big.jpg     None    None    2006-06-07 22:53:09
  • \$\begingroup\$ Woah, thanks for this. I'm going to read it over and see what I can do and let you know any questions. Much appreciated! \$\endgroup\$
    – BruceWayne
    Jun 14 '17 at 4:58
  • \$\begingroup\$ Hm - I took your advice and am working in Python3. However, I can't even seem to get the find_images function to work. I uncommented the print() line, and nothing happens when I run it. I call the function, for testing, with find_images("D:\\user\\imageFolder") and nothing happens. It runs, no compile error, but nothing is printed to the console/terminal (whatever it's called). Then, I tried calling it with main() like you have it, but nothing happens too. ...what's the image_dir='.' do? \$\endgroup\$
    – BruceWayne
    Jun 15 '17 at 3:32
  • \$\begingroup\$ find_images is a generator, which is lazily evaluated. If you want to force evaluation, you can run list(find_images(<image_dir>)).Calling the main() with the correct image_dir passes this generator on to extract_info, which iterates over it. The image_dir='.' is just a default image_dir for the main method \$\endgroup\$ Jun 15 '17 at 8:54
  • \$\begingroup\$ Sorry for the delay on marking as answer - as mentioned I'm learning and this was a pretty dense (to me) answer, so it took some time going through it. Thanks again! :D \$\endgroup\$
    – BruceWayne
    Jul 4 '17 at 2:47

Here's some of my thoughts on your code:

  • You should not leave a blank line in between returns in the _get_if_exists function;

  • Functions should be seperated by two blank lines;

  • Variable names should be lowercase_with_underscores (unlike timeTaken, for example);

  • Function names should also follow variable naming conventions (unlike writeToFile and saveFile).

All of these following PEP-8. Some other recommendations I have:

  • Functions will, if return is not explicitly called, return None by default, so there's no reason to use return None (under almost all circumstances);

  • You can use r"Path/To/File" (raw string), so there's no need to use escape sequences:

    Both string and bytes literals may optionally be prefixed with a letter 'r' or 'R'; such strings are called raw strings and treat backslashes as literal characters. Lexical Analysis

  • Instead of manually opening and closing the file, you can use the with keyword (with open(file_name, "r") as f: (to open a file in read mode and alias it f). This also takes care of closing the file for you and is generally more intuitive;

  • The last part of the code could be wrapped in a main() function, which can be then called conditionally.

As a response to your concern about the way you're declaring variables, it's generally a better idea to do this at the top of the file (but below the imports).

In your writeToFile() function, you could- well, I'll just rewrite it:

def write_to_file(*args, row, ws1):
    ws_ = ws1
    row_ = row  
    for count, arg in enumerate(args):
        ws1.cell(column=count, row=row_, value=arg)

If you're unfamiliar with *args / **kwargs, read this.

  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Thanks for this! I implemented your suggestions, but can't seem to get the write_to_file to properly work. I get an "Invalid Syntax" error when doing def write_to_file(*args, row, ws1): followed by those four lines. I'm calling it with write_to_file(image_name, lat, lon, time_taken, row, ws1) (note that I moved row, ws1 to the end, as I assume that *args will use the variables that come before the last two. Also, would I use the with open(... in my main() function? \$\endgroup\$
    – BruceWayne
    Jun 14 '17 at 4:56
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Python 2 works slightly differently, my bad. Try def write_to_file(row, ws1, *args). Regarding the use of the context manager (with open()), yes, preferably put that in main() and indent everything once. \$\endgroup\$
    – Daniel
    Jun 14 '17 at 5:05
  • \$\begingroup\$ All the more reason for me to go to Python3.x ...anyways, I tried that and now my error is "Row or column values must be at least 1", despite my having that row = 1 line...Hmm. \$\endgroup\$
    – BruceWayne
    Jun 14 '17 at 5:10
  • \$\begingroup\$ Can you reproduce the exact error? Also, could you add an assert row => 1 in main()? \$\endgroup\$
    – Daniel
    Jun 14 '17 at 5:24
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Let me get back to you - I'm still trying to figure out how to do the main() thing. Is that this, __name__ == "__main__" or something else? \$\endgroup\$
    – BruceWayne
    Jun 14 '17 at 5:40

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